Article by Brenda Norrell
Photos by Ryan Vizzions
North Dakota law enforcement admits that it had little experience, and no policies in place, when it fired rubber bullets, tear gas, and other chemical agents into Standing Rock Water Protectors.
In an internal report, not meant for public view, three North Dakota Congressmen are identified who aided law enforcement in the excessive force used at Standing Rock: Congressman Kevin Cramer, Senator Heidi Heitkamp, and Senator John Hoeven.
Among 178 agencies named in the militarized buildup for the benefit of Dakota Access Pipeline is the unlikely agency of US Customs and Border Patrol. The report confirms that North Dakota Game and Fish was responsible for aerial spying on Standing Rock camps.
While stating the pros and cons of its SWAT Team, the report states, “There were no formal, pre-planned policies on the use of less-than-lethal munitions and riot control/chemical agents.”
The report is the North Dakota Emergency Response After-Action Report, made public by The Intercept.
The report states, “The historical lack of experience with large-scale violent protests meant that little planning had gone into the use of less-than-lethal munitions and riot control/chemical agents.”
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