The move was made following a sudden rise of 629 cases on Saturday – the first time Italy has seen a daily increase of more than 600 since lockdown measures began to ease in May.
The new rules came into effect on Monday.
Along with the closure of nightclubs, face masks will also be mandatory between 6pm and 6am in public areas close to bars and pubs where crowds are more likely to gather.
Cases in the country are now more than double to those recorded three weeks ago following a national holiday which is thought to have seen more people going out dancing.
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Despite criticisms in recent months, Italy continued to allow nightclubs to remain open.
The nightlife industry in Italy brings in around €4 billion (around £3.6 billion) a year, and the closures are likely to cause economic damage according to industry minister Stefano Patuanelli.
“The expected damage from the closing of the discos is big but I don’t see alternatives, more attention is needed to avoid returning to the March data,” said Patuanelli.
Since the announcement of the UK’s travel corridors, many Britons have opted to visit Italy for their summer holiday.
The FCO adds: “Using masks remains mandatory in enclosed public spaces and (in some regions) in all public places and some outdoor places.
“You should pay close attention to signage and carry a mask with you at all times in Italy.”
Though Italy has managed to get a grip on the virus since lockdown measures were introduced, it was one of the countries worst affected by the pandemic in its early stages.
To date, the country has recorded 254,235 confirmed cases of the virus.