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HIV Increases Risk for Severe COVID-19

HIV Increases Risk for Severe COVID-19

Editor’s note: Find the latest COVID-19 news and guidance in Medscape’s Coronavirus Resource Center.

HIV increases the risk for severe COVID-19 by 6% and the risk of dying of COVID-19 in the hospital by 30%, according to a report from the World Health Organization (WHO) on COVID-19 outcomes among people living with HIV. The study primarily included people from South Africa, but also some data from other parts of the world, including the U.S.

However, the report, presented at the 11th IAS Conference on HIV Science (IAS 2021), couldn’t answer some crucial questions clinicians have been wondering about since the COVID-19 pandemic began. For example, was the increase in COVID risk for result of the presence of HIV or because of the immune compromise caused by untreated HIV?

The report didn’t include data on viral load or CD counts, both used to evaluate the health of a person’s immune system. On effective treatment, people living with HIV have a lifespan close to their HIV-negative peers. And effective treatment causes undetectable viral loads which, when maintained for 6 months or more, eliminates transmission of HIV to sexual partners.

What’s clear is that in people with HIV, as in people without HIV, older people, men, and people with diabetes, hypertension, or obesity had the worst outcomes and were most likely to die from COVID-19.

For David Malebranche, MD, MPH, an internal medicine doctor who provides primary care for people in Atlanta, Georgia, and who was not involved in the study, the WHO study didn’t add anything new. He already recommends the COVID-19 vaccine for all of his patients, HIV-positive or not.

“We don’t have any information from this about the T-cell counts [or] the rates of viral suppression, which I think is tremendously important,” he told Medscape Medical News. “To bypass that and not include that in any of the discussion puts the results in a questionable place for me.”

The results come from the WHO Clinical Platform, which culls data from WHO member country surveillance as well as manual case reports from all over the world. By April 29, data on 268,412 people hospitalized with COVID-19 from 37 countries were reported to the platform. Of those, 22,640 people are from the US.

A total of 15,522 participants worldwide were living with HIV, 664 in the US All U.S. cases were reported from the New York City Health and Hospitals system, Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit, and BronxCare Health System in New York City. Almost all of the remaining participants lived in South Africa —14,682 of the 15,522, or 94.5%.

Of the 15,522 people living with HIV in the overall group, 37.1% of participants were male, and their median age was 45 years. More than 1 in 3 (36.2%) were admitted with severe or critical COVID-19, and nearly one quarter — 23.1% — with a known outcome died. More than half had one or more chronic conditions, including those that themselves are associated with worse COVID-19 outcomes, such as hypertension (in 33.2% of the participants), diabetes (22.7%), and BMIs above 30 (16.9%). In addition, 8.9% were smokers, 6.6% had chronic pulmonary disease, and 4.3% had chronic heart disease.

After adjusting for those chronic conditions, age, and sex, people living with HIV had a 6% higher rate of severe or critical COVID-19 illness. When investigators adjusted the analysis additionally to differentiate outcomes based on not just the presence of comorbid conditions but the number of them a person had, that increased risk rose to 13%. HIV itself is a comorbid condition, though it wasn’t counted as one in this adjusted analysis.

It didn’t matter whether researchers looked at risk for severe outcomes or deaths after removing the significant co-occurring conditions or if they looked at number of chronic illnesses (aside from HIV), said Silvia Bertagnolio, MD, medical officer at the World Health Organization and co-author of the analysis.

“Both models show almost identical [adjusted odds ratios], meaning that HIV was independently significantly associated with severe/critical presentation,” she told Medscape.

As for death, the analysis showed that, overall, people living with HIV were 30% more likely to die of COVID-19 compared with those not living with HIV. And while this held true even when they adjusted the data for comorbidities, people with HIV were more likely to die if they were over age 65 (risk increased by 82%), male (risk increased by 21%), had diabetes (risk increased by 50%), or had hypertension (risk increased by 26%).

When they broke down the data by WHO region — Africa, Europe, the Americas — investigators found that the increased risk for death held true in Africa. But there were not enough data from the other regions to model mortality risk. What’s more, when they broke the data down by country and excluded South Africa, they found that the elevated risk for death in people living with HIV did not reach statistical significance. Bertagnolio said she suspects that the small sample sizes from other regions made it impossible to detect a difference, but one could still be present.

One thing conspicuously absent from the analysis was information on viral load, CD4 T-cell count, progression of HIV to AIDS, and whether individuals were in HIV care. The first three factors were not reported in the platform, and the fourth was available for 60% of participants but was not included in the analysis. Bertagnolio pointed out that, for those 60% of participants, 91.8% were on antiretroviral treatment (ART).

“The majority of patients come from South Africa, and we know that in South Africa, over 90% of people receiving ART are virologically suppressed,” she told Medscape. “So we could speculate that this effect persists despite the use of ART, in a population likely to be virally suppressed, although we cannot assess this with certainty through the data set we had.”

A much smaller study of 749 people living with HIV and diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2, also presented at the conference, found that detectable HIV viral load was significantly associated with a slightly higher risk of severe outcomes (P < .039), but CD4 counts less than 200 cells/mm3 was not (P = .15).

And although both Bertagnolio and conference organizers presented this data as proof that HIV increases the risk for poor COVID-19 outcomes, Malebranche isn’t so sure. He estimates that only about half his patients have received the COVID-19 vaccine. But this study is unlikely to make him forcefully recommend a COVID-19 vaccination with young, otherwise healthy, and undetectable people in his care who express particular concern about long-term effects of the vaccine. He also manages a lot of people with HIV who have undetectable viral loads and CD4 counts of up to 1200 but are older, with diabetes, obesity, and high blood pressure. Those are the people he will target with stronger messages regarding the vaccine.

“The young patients who are healthy, virally suppressed, and doing well may very much argue with me, ‘I’m not going to push it,’ but I will bring it up on the next visit,” he said. The analysis “just helps reinforce in me that I need to have these conversations and be a little bit more persuasive to my older patients with comorbid conditions.”

Bertagnolio has disclosed no relevant financial relationships. Malebranche serves on the pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) speakers bureau for Gilead Sciences and has consulted and advised for ViiV Healthcare. This study was funded by the World Health Organization.

International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Science 2021: Abstract 2498 and Abstract 1099. Presented July 14, 2021.

Heather Boerner is a science journalist and author who has been covering HIV for a decade. Her book, Positively Negative: Love, Sex, and Science’s Surprising Victory Over HIV, came out in 2014.

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This post originally posted here Medscape Medical News

Heart attack: Avoid these three foods which increases your risk of the deadly condition

Heart attack: Avoid these three foods which increases your risk of the deadly condition

For a happy heart, limit your intake of saturated fat and avoid trans-fat (found in hydrogenated oils) completely.

Saturated fat should make up no more than six percent of your total daily caloric intake.

To manage blood pressure, limit your daily sodium intake to 1,500 mg or less.

Ask your healthcare professional if caffeinated beverages, like coffee and tea, are appropriate for your heart.

Enjoy these drinks in moderation without added cream, milk, or sugar.

Author: Jessica Knibbs
Read more here >>> Daily Express :: Health
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Great news for savers as bank increases ‘enticing’ interest rates on three accounts

Great news for savers as bank increases 'enticing' interest rates on three accounts

Individuals can manage their account via the phone seven ays a week, online, or through the RCI Bank app.

Rachel Springall, Finance Expert at Moneyfacts, offered further insight into the changes.

She said: “It’s great to see rate improvements from RCI Bank UK and for savers looking to supplement their income they may find these offers enticing as they pay monthly interest and can be opened with a £1,000 lump sum.

“However, when comparing the rates offered to their peers, savers could find a rate of up to 1.10 percent as an expected profit rate from Gatehouse Bank on a one-year bond. In the two year fixed bond sector, Gatehouse Bank offer a market-leading 1.20 percent as an expected profit rate. 

Author: Rebekah Evans
Read more here >>> Daily Express :: Finance Feed

EU vaccine passport chaos as airport time increases by 500% – ‘total lack of coordination’

EU vaccine passport chaos as airport time increases by 500% - 'total lack of coordination'

According to Politico, a cyberattack has made it difficult for Ireland to get “all the technical solutions” in place by today, Justice Commissioner Didier Reynders said Wednesday.

However, Mr O’Leary urged the UK to unite with the EU on a plan for travel.

“The bit that’s uncertain is [whether] European countries will welcome in UK visitors without any restrictions,” he said.

“Will they accept the NHS app or will they have to produce other documentary evidence that they have been vaccinated.

Read more here >>> Daily Express

'We have been victims': WASPI urge action on state pension age increases

'We have been victims': WASPI urge action on state pension age increases

WASPI, known formally as Women Against State Pension Inequality, has argued women born in the 1950s were not given ample notice to prepare for state pension age changes. The state pension age previously stood at 60 for women as an aim of when individuals could retire. However, as a result of two separate Pension Acts in 1995 and 2011 respectively, this underwent change.

“We are in the process of waiting for the Parliamentary and Health Service Ombudsman to make a decision about his investigation into those complaints.

“If he does find maladministration, then we would like the Government to acknowledge that we have been victims and to compensate the women appropriately.”

Ms De Spon acknowledged it is highly unlikely 1950s women will ever be repaid the state pension they have effectively lost in full.

However, she has stated there is an absolute need for financial compensation on the matter.

Concessions made to the women who have been impacted by this change, she added, could go a long way.

She has stated many women are in extreme and dire circumstances as a result of the changes to state pension age. 

The WASPI campaign was first established in 2015 as a way of highlighting the cause and bringing attention to the matter.

The campaign is not against the idea of female and male state pension age equality.

However, it does not agree with the ways changes were implemented and has called for women affected to receive more support.

The group has said “hundreds of thousands of women are suffering financial hardship” not simply due to an older state pension age, but the fact they were not prepared to budget for the increase.

Understandably, many people are reliant upon state pension payments to provide them with support in retirement.

And with women having to face other issues such as sexism in their working lives, as well as the gender pay gap, many have described facing significant burdens.

The Government has argued letters were sent out to women who were affected by the state pension age increase to inform them of the changes.

However, some have reported receiving no correspondence at all on the issue, hence their dissatisfaction.

Similar issues have been raised in the past by other campaign groups including Backto60, which has a slightly different aim, but represents 1950s women. 

This post originally appeared on Daily Express :: Finance Feed

Heart attack: A type of exercise which increases your risk of the deadly condition

Heart attack: A type of exercise which increases your risk of the deadly condition

According to a review published in Circulation, people who engaged in 150 minutes of moderate-intensity leisure activity per week had a 14 percent lower risk of coronary heart disease than those who reported no exercise. That being said, there can be a link between exercise and an increased risk of developing not only coronary heart disease but heart attacks too.

In a study published in the US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, extreme exercise on cardiovascular health implications was further analysed.

The study noted: “High-intensity exercise can acutely, albeit transiently, increase the risk for sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) or sudden cardiac death (SCD) in individuals with underlying cardiac disease.

“A Canadian study of athletic participants aged 12 to 45 years old found 74 cases with SCA over the course of 18.5 million persons-years of observation, yielding an incidence of 0.76 cases per 100,000 athletes per year.

“A total of 16 SCA cases occurred during competitive sports of which 44 percent survived, whereas 58 cases occurred during non-competitive sports of which 44 percent also survived.

“Recent studies demonstrated that extreme volumes and/or intensities of long-term exercise training are associated with several possible cardiac maladaptation’s.”

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Chronic extreme exercise training and competing in endurance events can lead to heart damage and rhythm disorders, said the Cleveland Clinic.

The site continued: “People with genetic risk factors are especially vulnerable.

“A study done on marathon runners found that even after finishing extreme running events, athletes’ blood samples contain biomarkers associated with heart damage.

“Moreover, research found evidence that high intensity exercise can acutely increase the risk for sudden cardiac arrest or sudden cardiac death in individuals with underlying cardiac disease.

“This can also increase the risk of heart rhythm disorders, especially for the minority who have hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or coronary heart disease.”

Moderate exercise includes activities such as walking, jogging or swimming.

In most cases, moderate activities should leave you free to carry on a conversation while you are active. 

However, if you have symptoms, a history of a heart condition or risk factors for heart disease, check with your doctor before starting or changing an exercise regimen.

High levels of exercise over time may cause stress on the arteries leading to higher coronary artery calcification (CAC), said Dr Jamal Rana, a study author.

“However, this plaque build-up may well be of the more stable kind, and thus less likely to rupture and causes heart attack, which was not evaluated in this study.”

Dr Rana added that they plan to continue following the participants to see how many have heart attacks, other health problems, or die early.

This post originally appeared on Daily Express :: Life and Style Feed
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Obesity Increases Risk for Long-COVID, Study Finds

Obesity Increases Risk for Long-COVID, Study Finds

June 8, 2021 — Obesity — an established major risk factor in the development of severe infection or death from COVID-19 infection — also appears to significantly increase the risk of developing long-term complications from the disease, a syndrome often referred to as long-haul COVID-19, according to a new study.

“To our knowledge, this current study for the first time suggests that patients with moderate to severe obesity are at a greater risk of developing long-term complications of COVID-19 beyond the acute phase,” the study’s lead author, Ali Aminian, MD, director of Cleveland Clinic’s Bariatric & Metabolic Institute, said in a press statement.

The study included 2,839 patients who tested positive for COVID-19 in the Cleveland Clinic Health System between March and July 2020 who did not require admission to the ICU and survived the initial phase of COVID-19.

The doctors looked for three indicators of possible long-term complications of COVID-19 — hospital admission, death, and need for diagnostic medical tests — that occurred 30 days or more after the first positive viral test for COVID-19.

In the 10 months after their initial COVID-19 infection, 44% of the patients required hospital admission and 1% had died.

The need for diagnostic tests after infection was 25% higher among those with moderate obesity (BMI of 35-39.9) and 39% higher in those with severe obesity (BMI of >40), compared with those of with a BMI of 18.5-24.9.

Specifically, those with obesity were more likely to require diagnostic tests for the heart, lung, and kidney; for gastrointestinal or hormonal symptoms; or blood disorders; and for mental health problems following COVID-19 infection.

Obesity was not associated with a higher risk of death during the follow-up period, however.

The findings suggest that obesity’s effects extend beyond worsening infection and influence the long-term symptoms.

“The observations of this study can possibly be explained by the underlying mechanisms at work in patients who have obesity, such as hyperinflammation, immune dysfunction, and comorbidities,” senior author Bartolome Burguera, MD, PhD, said in the Cleveland Clinic press statement.

While a wide array of milder long-term effects after COVID-19 infection including psychological symptoms, fatigue, brain fog, muscle weakness, and sleep difficulties have been reported, the current study did not include information on those symptoms.

However, even the finding that up to 44% of the patients required hospital admission after COVID-19 — regardless of weight status — is of concern, the authors noted.

“These findings suggest a profound magnitude of the public health impact of [long-haul COVID-19] in the setting worldwide infection,” they wrote.

The study is published in the journal Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.


Ali Aminian, MD, director of Cleveland Clinic’s Bariatric & Metabolic Institute.

Bartolome Burguera, MD, PhD, Cleveland Clinic.

Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism: “Association of Obesity with Post-Acute Sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC).”

Editor’s note: Find the latest COVID-19 news and guidance in Medscape’s Coronavirus Resource Center.

This post originally appeared on Medscape Medical News Headlines

Yorkshire Building Society further increases interest rates amid 3.5% savings offer

Yorkshire Building Society further increases interest rates amid 3.5% savings offer

The building society has committed to a further £16million in additional interest for savers. This is on top of the £20million already announced as part of the member loyalty initiative.

The Society is automatically updating all qualifying accounts.

These include Internet Saver, Access Saver and Triple Access Saver accounts.

Any of the qualifying accounts opened up to January 29, 2021, will be included in the changes.

The member reward programme was started in January and it is designed to reward loyal members with good value, at a time of continuing low interest rates.


The building society has delivered a range of new accounts, including the regular savings account which offers a 3.5 percent rate for members who have been with the Society since the beginning of 2020.

The latest member reward account – the Loyalty Six Access Saver – will launch on June 2.

Savers with this account can benefit from a variable interest rate of 0.65 percent on balances up to £50,000, while allowing customers to deposit between £1 and £50,000.

Account holders are able to withdraw money on up to six occasions throughout the year without penalty, or if closing the account.

It is available to members who either save or have a mortgage with the Society.

Tina Hughes, director of savings at Yorkshire Building Society, said: “As part of our mutual heritage it’s so important to us that we give our members good value – our founding purpose as a building society is to help people with their savings.

“With the Bank of England rate at a record low, we’re conscious times are tough for savers, but we’re committed to exploring ways that can help our members establish healthy savings habits.

“Giving savers higher interest rates is just one way we reward loyalty from our valued customers.

“In addition to the £36million in extra interest for our savers, we’re really proud that the Loyalty Six Access Saver member account further demonstrates our investment in our members but also allows them to benefit from a competitive return on their money for a year, whilst allowing access to their funds throughout the year.”

Those who qualify for the new Loyalty Six Access Saver can open the account via telephone, by calling their local branch or agency.

After 12 months, the account will mature into an off-sale maturity account, titled Six Access Saver Issue 3.

This particular account currently pays 0.55 percent.

This post originally appeared on Daily Express :: Finance Feed

Biden Budget Requests Steep Increases for NIH, CDC, SAMHSA

Biden Budget Requests Steep Increases for NIH, CDC, SAMHSA

President Joe Biden requested notable increases for certain federal medical programs in his first fully detailed budget request, while also highlighting efforts to address gun violence and the opioid epidemic and prepare better for pandemics.

Biden’s fiscal 2022 request, released Friday afternoon, serves as a formal marker for the White House’s views on national health policy, with Congress having the responsibility to draft and set budgets. Lawmakers would need to make cuts elsewhere in the federal budget in the months ahead to accommodate Biden’s bids for generous increases for some federal health agencies.

Still, some of Biden’s favored programs such as the National Institutes of Health (NIH) enjoy strong bipartisan support in Congress. The president is seeking a notable increase in what amounts to the NIH’s annual operating expenses, which would be newly appropriated money known in federal fiscal terms as discretionary budget authority.

The NIH’s discretionary budget authority would rise by about 22%, or $ 9.03 billion, to $ 50.5 billion in fiscal 2022, which starts in October, from $ 41.5 billion in the current budget year, fiscal 2021.

The budget authority for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) would rise by $ 1.5 billion (about 21%) to $ 8.54 billion, and that for the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) would rise by $ 3.72 billion (about 63%) to $ 9.59 billion.

“[The US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)] is at the center of many challenges facing our country today — the COVID-19 pandemic, mental and other behavioral health challenges, the opioid addiction crisis, racial inequality and more,” said Xavier Becerra, HHS Secretary, in a statement.

The HHS summary of the fiscal 2022 budget request briefing document describes the proposed increase for the CDC as the largest budget authority increase for the agency in almost 2 decades.

Gun Violence ‘A Public Health Issue’

The White House is seeking to increase efforts within the NIH and the CDC to address firearm violence prevention, according to a budget summary. 

“Almost 40,000 people die as a result of firearm injuries in the United States every year, while homicide is the third leading cause of death for people ages 10-24,” the HHS summary says. “This is a public health issue, and one that disproportionately impacts communities of color.”

The HHS summary says that the budget request would double CDC and NIH funding for firearm violence prevention research. Within this field, Biden is seeking $ 100 million for the CDC to start a new Community Violence Intervention initiative, in collaboration with the Department of Justice, to implement evidence-based community violence interventions at the local level.

Other shared areas of focus between the NIH and the CDC include efforts to prepare for the effects of climate change, according to the HHS summary of the budget request. Biden is seeking an increase of $ 100 million in the NIH for this field and an additional $ 100 million investment in the CDC’s Climate and Health program.

The budget request also says that Biden seeks more than $ 220 million in discretionary funding for fiscal 2022 to reduce maternal mortality and morbidity. This includes increased funding for the CDC’s Maternal Mortality Review Committees and the Health Resources and Services Administration’s Rural Maternity and Obstetrics Management Strategies Program, as well as other increases across HHS programs.

The Biden request also would increase the budget for the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority by $ 227million to $ 823 million, seeking to better prepare the nation for pandemics and other crises.

Focus on Public Option

Fiscal 2022 starts on October 1. But lawmakers routinely miss this deadline and complete annual spending bills to finalize government agencies’ budgets well into new fiscal years. Lawmakers in both parties and chambers will work in the months ahead to hash out the operating budgets for federal agencies, using Biden’s detailed request as a guide.

Biden’s budget also includes messages of support for goals of his fellow Democrats that would be separate from this routine annual budget process handled through appropriations bills.

The budget document summarizes major planks of Biden’s healthcare agenda, including his support for allowing Medicare to negotiate payments for certain high-cost drugs and requiring manufacturers to pay rebates when drug prices rise faster than inflation.

This section of the budget request also said that Biden supports efforts to help Americans get lower-cost coverage choices, such as by creating a public option that would be available through the health insurance exchanges created by the Affordable Care Act and giving people age 60 and older the option to enroll in Medicare with the same premiums and benefits as current enrollees, but with financing separate from the program’s trust fund.

“Healthcare is a right, not a privilege. Families need the financial security and peace of mind that comes with quality, affordable health coverage,” the HHS budget summary says.

Kerry Dooley Young is a freelance journalist based in Washington, DC. She is the core topic leader on patient safety issues for the Association of Health Care Journalists. Young earlier covered health policy and the federal budget for Congressional Quarterly/CQ Roll Call, and the pharmaceutical industry and the US Food and Drug Administration for Bloomberg. Follow her on Twitter at @kdooleyyoung.

For more news, follow Medscape on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, YouTube, and LinkedIn.

This post originally appeared on Medscape Medical News Headlines

Chance of a price crash increases as Cardano (ADA) futures near $1B

The impressive 816% gain of Cardano’s ADA coin in 2021 catapulted the smart contract platform’s market capitalization to $ 61 billion. To fully grasp how far this third-generation protocol has gone, the absolute leader, Ether (ETH), held the same valuation just six months ago.

As AD’s price evolves, so do its derivatives markets, and the nearly $ 1 billion in futures open interest poses both an opportunity and a threat for the price. Cautious investors will now question whether the $ 200 billion in potential liquidations are around the corner, drawing similarities to the 23% crash that occurred on April 17.

DeFi is still looking for alternatives

There is no doubt that decentralized finance (DeFi) has been fueling the rally in smart contract-focused cryptocurrencies, and the Ethereum network’s median fees surging past $ 35 led investors to seek alternatives.

Cardano uses a proof-of-stake mechanism, although still pending its “Goguen” update, which will add support for smart contracts and native token issuance. While ADA is inflationary, the supply — currently 32 billion — will be capped at 45 billion.

Chance of a price crash increases as Cardano (ADA) futures near $1B
ADA aggregate futures open interest. Source: Bybt

ADA’s $ 1.97 all-time high on May 13 caused the open interest on futures contracts to reach $ 940 billion. Considering that ADA’s futures volumes seldom surpass $ 4 billion, this open interest figure is pretty impressive.

The $ 195-million long contracts liquidation on April 17 was partially responsible for the 23% crash that occurred over four hours. However, a significantly sized open interest cannot be pinpointed as the primary catalyst for cascading liquidations.

Leverage is the culprit when it comes to negative surprises

Open interest is a measure of the number of open futures contracts, but these are matched at all times between buyers (longs) and sellers (shorts). Thus, the most aggressive liquidations occur when longs are using excessive leverage, and the only way to measure that is through the funding rate.

Perpetual contracts are also known as inverse swaps, and these contracts have a funding rate that is usually changed every eight hours. When (buyers) use higher leverage, this fee increases, so their accounts get drained little by little. When a retail buying frenzy occurs, the fee can reach up to 5.5% per week.

Chance of a price crash increases as Cardano (ADA) futures near $1B
ADA perpetual futures 8-hour funding rate. Source: Bybt

The above chart shows how exaggerated the buyers’ leverage was ahead of the April 17 crash.

A 0.30% funding rate every eight hours equals 6.5% weekly, which is a heavy burden for those carrying long positions.

These high funding levels are unusual, and it won’t take much to trigger stop orders. That’s precisely what happened as Bitcoin’s (BTC) price tanked to $ 52,000 on April 17 and pulled the entire cryptocurrency market south.

However, the current funding rate is close to zero on most exchanges, indicating a balanced use of leverage on the buy side and sell side. This means that even as open interest surges, there are no signs that the derivatives market will cause an ADA price crash.

The views and opinions expressed here are solely those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of Cointelegraph. Every investment and trading move involves risk. You should conduct your own research when making a decision.