Tag Archives: Roman

Missing Italy? Here’s a taste of Roman history right in the heart of London

Legionaries from Spain and Hungary rubbed shoulders with merchants such as Lucius Tettius, a trader from North Africa who imported the Romans’ favourite fish sauce from the south of France. Less than 20 years later, disaster struck – Boudicca, Queen of the Iceni, led her tribe to battle against the Romans, slaughtering the inhabitants of Londinium before burning the city to the ground. Following the eventual defeat of the Iceni, Londinium was rebuilt, and soon it was booming again.

By the second century it had become the capital of Britannia, welcoming the emperor Hadrian among others.

If you want to follow in the footsteps of emperors, here’s a quick guide to Roman Londinium.

Roman City Walls

A large portion of the Roman Walls can be visited, but those who just want a quick look should head to Tower Hill. Just outside the entrance to the Tube station you’ll see a fairly representative section of the wall at almost full height.

Somewhat surprisingly, Londinium didn’t have any permanent city walls until late in the second century AD, after a renegade general, Clodius Albinus, declared himself emperor and led the British legions into Gaul against the real emperor, Septimius Severus. The revolt was quickly crushed, and Severus ordered the construction of walls around the city to keep out any marauding locals who might have taken advantage of the period of chaos.

Don’t be fooled by the statue of Trajan, by the way – he never came to Britain. The council bought the statue from a junkyard and thought it would look good against the Roman wall!

If you want to see one of the remaining chunks of wall in an unusual spot, head to London Wall car park nearby and bay 52, where the wall never has to pay for parking.

Find it: Tower Hill, Barbican and Noble Street

Tube: Tower Hill

All Hallows by the Tower

The oldest church in the City, All Hallows dates from the 7th century. Over the years it’s played host to the bodies of those executed by irate monarchs in the Tower of London, including Sir Thomas More. But long before such grisly happenings, this was a bustling part of the Roman town. Roman tiles have been re-used in the Saxon brickwork, and in the crypt there’s a small museum of finds dating back to the 2nd century AD.

Find it: Byward Street

Tube: Tower Hill

Billingsgate Bath House

The remains of a late second century AD residence with its own private bath house. Originally a luxurious waterfront abode, it boasted underfloor heating and a full suite of baths, including a warm room with a bathing pool, a steam room, and a cold plunge bath.

Find it: 101 Lower Thames Street

Tube: Monument, Tower Hill

Roman legionary fortress, Barbican

Missing Italy? Here's a taste of Roman history right in the heart of London
Roman tower at Barbican (snigl3t)

Roman forts were shaped like a playing card, with curved corners. See one for yourself at the Barbican, where you can explore the remains of a second century tower that marked the north-western corner of Londinium. You can also follow the line of the fortress wall, which was re-fortified as part of the city wall in the medieval period. The 1,000 legionaries stationed here likely had a cushy job most of the time – they served as bodyguards and messengers to the governor of the province rather than frontline soldiers.

Find it: In the gardens off Wood Street.

Tube: Barbican.

St Magnus the Martyr

There’s been a church at this location for more than 900 years, but before the advent of Christianity this site, right on the edge of the Thames, made it an ideal spot for Roman merchants to establish their shops and warehouses. Outside St Magnus’s is a remnant of the very first London Bridge. Carbon dated to 75 AD and made of long-lasting alder, it’s thought to be a piling from either the bridge itself or the river wall of the docks close by.

Find it: Lower Thames Street

Tube: Cannon Street

Southwark Cathedral

On the other side of the current London Bridge lies Southwark Cathedral. In Roman times, this would have been a lively settlement of native people, foreign visitors, and soldier’s families. As the city grew in importance the inevitable gentrification took place along the South Bank, and fashionable villas sprouted on the shoreline. In the aisles of Southwark Cathedral are fragments of mosaic from the Roman villa which once stood here.

Find it: London Bridge

Tube: London Bridge

Roman amphitheatre, London Guildhall

Missing Italy? Here's a taste of Roman history right in the heart of London
Inside the amphitheatre attraction (Luke McKernan)

Eight metres beneath the medieval Guildhall lies a Roman amphitheatre. The extent of the seating area is marked with a black line on the pavement in Guildhall Yard; down below you can tread the sands and imagine the roar of the crowd. Some 8,000 spectators could have packed into the amphitheatre, expecting a gruesomely entertaining day out. Beast fights were held in the morning – probably wolves, bears, or packs of wild dogs – although the emperor Claudius did bring elephants to Britain, so it’s possible more exotic animals would have been on display. Then at lunchtime the arena was used for the executions of criminals before the big ticket gladiatorial fights in the afternoon. The burial of a wealthy female gladiator was discovered in Southwark and she probably fought, and maybe fell, in this amphitheatre.

Find it: Guildhall Yard

Tube: Bank, Mansion House, St Paul’s

The London Stone

It’s hard to believe that this unimpressive lump of rock inspired so much devotion in times gone by, but for centuries it was used as the medieval equivalent of Speaker’s Corner. It even bagged a brief role in Shakespeare’s Henry VI as a rallying-point for action against the Crown. One thing’s for sure, the London Stone has been around for a long time. It’s thought to date from the rebuilding of Londinium by the governor, Julius Classicianus, in the AD60s, and it’s been suggested that it formed part of the governor’s palace, which once stood beneath Cannon Street station.

Find it: 111 Cannon Street.

Tube: Cannon Street.

The Mithraeum

Missing Italy? Here's a taste of Roman history right in the heart of London
Inside the Mithraeum attraction (It’s No Game)

Leave modern London behind as you descend into another era, and glimpse the mysterious eastern cult of the god Mithras.

Temples to this deity were constructed underground or in cave-like buildings, and you’ll experience the awe of the initiate as you enter the shadowy space with its immersive experience for all the senses.

A secretive cult open only to men, Mithraism was popular with soldiers across the empire. An interactive exhibition helps you explore the artefacts found on site, and during a visit to the temple itself you’ll hear whispered conversations and an atmospheric light display.

Find it: 12 Walbrook

Tube: Cannon Street

Another site just outside of Zone 1 is Crofton Roman Villa at Orpington

The only Roman villa to survive in London, Crofton once had an estate of 500 acres and was occupied for almost three hundred years from the mid-second century AD. Ten of the rooms can be seen today, with hypocausts and tessellated floors. Many of these large country estates were built as money-spinning enterprises (the Roman army ate a lot of sausages, so pig-breeding was extremely profitable!) as well as a place for a wealthy senator to escape the noise of the city.

Interested in learning more? Check out the permanent displays in the Museum of London, where you can see the head of Mithras discovered in the Mithraeum, and a pair of leather bikini pants, probably worn by a gladiator in the amphitheatre.

There’s also the permanent collection at the British Museum, which houses inscriptions and artefacts from Roman Londinium. Look out for the mosaic of Bacchus riding on the back of a tiger, from Leadenhall Street.

Author: Daily Express newspaper
Read more here >>> Daily Express

Archaeology breakthrough as ‘vast treasure hoard’ from Pompeii linked to Roman elite 

Archaeology breakthrough as ‘vast treasure hoard’ from Pompeii linked to Roman elite 

The Roman settlement was obliterated by one of the deadliest volcanic eruptions in history when Mount Vesuvius erupted in 79AD. The natural disaster ejected molten rock, pulverised pumice and hot ash at 1.5 million tonnes per second over the city’s 12,000 residents – in what would have been a terrifying ending. But it also covered the city in a blanket of thick material, allowing modern-day scientists to continue to study its inhabitants.

Ancient Roman scholar Professor Mary Beard visited the Museum in Naples during Absolute History’s ‘Pompeii with Mary Beard’ where she got the unique opportunity to study 54 “wealthy” individuals in detail.

She said: “One of the most complete skeletons is a man aged about 55.

“Apart from some dental cavities, he seemed in pretty good nick – but why are his bones green?”

Dr Fabian Kanz, a forensic anthropologist from the University of Vienna explained the reasoning for the colouring.

He said: “On the whole left side he is green.

“This comes from metal objects which means he was wealthy. There was some bronze or copper or brass object buried with him.

“The acid in the soil reacted with the metal objects.

“Nearly all of the rich samples have at least one or two bones green.”

Prof Beard then got a chance to have a look at some of the incredible treasures left behind by these individuals.

READ MORE: Stonehenge breakthrough after ‘largest prehistoric village’ uncovered near monument

“It would be very pricey now, it must have been very pricey then, too.

“There is a vast treasure hoard in this cellar.”

When Mount Vesuvius erupted in the first century, it released 100,000 times more thermal energy than the nuclear bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. 

At least 1,000 people died in the eruption, but exact numbers are unknown. 

Vesuvius has erupted many times since, with the last coming in 1944.

Today, it is regarded as one of the most dangerous volcanoes in the world because of the population of three million people living nearby. 

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Author: Callum Hoare
Read more here >>> Daily Express :: World Feed

Chelsea boss Thomas Tuchel sends message to Roman Abramovich and makes transfer statement

Chelsea boss Thomas Tuchel sends message to Roman Abramovich and makes transfer statement
Thomas Tuchel wants to become the first long-term manager of the Roman Abramovich era and has told the Chelsea owner he can build a dynasty. Victory in the Champions League final against Manchester City capped a stunning turnaround in four months for the German.
But he laid out his long term vision to Abramovich at a meeting yesterday to hammer out a new deal which could see him stay at the club until 2024.

Asked whether he could be the man to end the hire-and-fire policy at Stamford Bridge in order to create sustained long-term success, Tuchel said: We have to check with the owner if this is his plan, I think it’s possible.

“It’s always possible because the foundation is very, very strong.

“If we really want to build something, I’m all in, I can tell you. And I’m happy to talk about it and discuss it. If our beliefs match, we go from there.”

Saturday’s victory over Manchester City triggered an extension clause in Tuchel’s 18-month contract which was set to run out next summer.

JUST IN: Chelsea: Granovskaia’s great comments on Tuchel as trophy returns

“It’s a constant thing to never deny change.

“That you always bring new energy, new guys who question the old beliefs, who challenge everybody in the training and in matches, so I think it’s a good thing.”

Author:
This post originally appeared on Daily Express :: Sport Feed

Chelsea boss Thomas Tuchel sends Roman Abramovich message on future before Man City clash

Chelsea boss Thomas Tuchel sends Roman Abramovich message on future before Man City clash
Thomas Tuchel has made it clear to Chelsea owner Roman Abramovich he’s keen to sign a new contract if one can be put on the table. Tuchel is six months into his current 18-month deal but insists he’s as happy as he’s ever been in his career at Stamford Bridge.
The German was axed by Paris Saint-Germain back in December and then took over from the sacked Frank Lampard at Chelsea in late January.

Chelsea had lost five of their previous eight league games under Lampard to slip down to 10th in the Premier League table.

But upon his appointment Tuchel oversaw a 15-match unbeaten run across all competitions and eventually led the Blues to fourth in the league in the final standings.

In Europe the Londoners also saw off Atletico Madrid, Porto and Real Madrid to reach a first Champions League final since 2012, in which they will face Manchester City in Portugal on Saturday night.

Chelsea reached the FA Cup final too but fell 1-0 to Leicester thanks to Youri Tielemans’ sublime long-range strike at Wembley.

Yet even though they could still end the season trophyless if they lose to City in Porto, their improvement under Tuchel has been immense.

And the former Mainz, Borussia Dortmund and PSG boss insists he’s never been happier as he hinted he’d like a new long-term contract from Russian billionaire Abramovich.

It is thought the original deal Tuchel signed would extend automatically if Chelsea reached the Champions League for each of the two years of his initial tenure.

But Chelsea are understood to be keen to extend Tuchel’s stay beyond his current deal meaning an agreement could be found after the Champions League final.

Tuchel said this week when asked about his future: “This is very easy. I’m just so happy to be here.

“I never felt so good since I was in Mainz and this feels like the perfect place and the perfect moment for the perfect place.

“I’m so happy to be here, so whatever will come will come. We cannot force things, but, of course, this is my point of view and this is very clear.”

He said: “It’s one of the nicest weeks that you can have in football. You’re one of the only two teams that are still in training. This is very, very special.

“Hopefully the players take their time to also picture it, to connect to where they came from when they were little boys with the ball under their arm in the park or in their first clubs and dreamed about becoming professionals.

“This is the moment to picture it. [This is] what we do it for. Why do you do it? Why was this dream so big? [This is the moment] to connect you to the little boy in you and feel the joy and at the same time the hunger to fulfil your dream.

“It feels like I’m in the perfect place at the perfect time. I feel very, very good.

“Hopefully it’s like this but I know we have to deliver. It’s about timing, not only about results sometimes but the chemistry, the moment, the team. Everything feels very, very good now.”

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This post originally appeared on Daily Express :: Sport Feed

Roman Abramovich has a Champions League final again

Roman Abramovich has a Champions League final again

Nine years after beating Bayern Munich in Germany and 13 years since his Moscow misery in a defeat on penalties to Man United, Roman Abramovich has a Champions League final to look forward to again after Chelsea beat Real Madrid.

A European campaign that had looked unpromising under Frank Lampard could now conclude with glory after an all-English final against Premier League leaders Manchester City, Chelsea’s spot sealed by a confident 2-0 win against 13-time winners Madrid at Stamford Bridge on Wednesday.

For a man whose conviction and success in front of goal has frequently been questioned during his first season at the club, Timo Werner could not have asked for more of a gift than the goal with which he put his side ahead after 28 minutes, the rebound from Kai Havertz’s chip onto the crossbar falling to him to nod in from point-blank range to make it 2-1 on aggregate.

“I had to wait a long time for the ball coming down,” the Germany forward admitted to BT Sport afterwards. “It felt like hours waiting for the ball to come… it was an easy goal for me.

“One thing you can say to us today is that we could have decided the game earlier in the second half but, in the end, it’s not easy to play against Real Madrid and we did it very, very well.”

Goalkeeper Edouard Mendy was on inspired form, tipping a fierce strike and powerful header from hitman Karim Benzema away in a pair of fine first-half saves.

The danger was almost all from Chelsea in the second half, yet the wastefulness Werner alluded to felt as if it might haunt them after Havertz and N’Golo Kante – the star man again, repeating his majestic showing in Spain – both saw shots saved by former Blues goalkeeper Thibaut Courtois when they were through on goal.

Any nerves were finally calmed when Mason Mount became the first English goalscorer in a UEFA Champions League semi-final since Wayne Rooney more than ten years ago, sweeping in the second with five minutes remaining after American prodigy Christian Pulisic had created space to fire in a cross down the right.

“Real Madrid can turn nothing into goals, so you’re always on the edge,” said Thomas Tuchel, the coach brought in by Abramovich in January in a ruthless replacement of Frank Lampard that has turned out to be inspired.

“To hang in there, even if you have big chances that you miss and you miss again, to never lose the concentration, focus and positive energy on the pitch – it was a huge performance and well deserved.”

“We could have scored so much earlier and more to be safe, but it’s no time for criticism now. It’s a fantastic achievement; big congratulations to the team.”

Chelsea have been also-rans in Europe in recent seasons and were crushed 7-1 by reigning champions Bayern Munich last year. They are now 90 minutes from their third Champions League trophy against Abramovich, having already beaten City under Tuchel in a 1-0 FA Cup semi-final win this season.

Werner praised Tuchel for allowing his squad to enjoy home comforts rather than endure a hotel stay the night before beating Madrid.

“I know the managers love everybody to go to a hotel before a game because they have everybody together,” he smiled.

“For us players, it’s the best thing when you can sleep at home in your bed – when you are around your family, your normal home. It has worked for [recent] games, it worked today and I think it’s a good thing that the manager decided to do it.”

Tuchel made the final with Paris Saint-Germain next year. When it was put to him that reaching the showpiece again was a symbol of his abilities as a coach, he laughed: “Or not, because it’s not the same club.”

“I’m very, very happy that we’ve achieved this,” he said. “I’m very grateful to have the opportunity to live my life in football. To have this passion as a profession, I’m more than grateful – and to do it on this level, to coach a team like this and to reach the final for a second time, I’m very thankful.”

Chelsea are scheduled to face City in the showdown in Istanbul on May 29.

Also on rt.com Hazard hammered after appearing to celebrate on pitch with Chelsea players as Zidane insists pride in Real Madrid defeat (VIDEO)

Author: RT
This post originally appeared on RT Sport News

Lampard hails ‘incredible time’ despite being axed by Roman Abramovich at Chelsea and admits snubbing ‘not quite right’ job offers

Lampard hails ‘incredible time’ despite being axed by Roman Abramovich at Chelsea and admits snubbing ‘not quite right’ job offers

Former Chelsea manager Frank Lampard says there are no hard feeling between him and Roman Abramovich after he was sacked by the London club in January, while admitting he has also been in heavy demand from a string of new clubs.

Chelsea legend and all-time top scorer Lampard was unceremoniously booted out by the Blues in January after a dismal run of form threatened the Londoners Champions League qualification ambitions. 

Thomas Tuchel, who was similarly deemed surplus to requirements by his former employers Paris Saint-Germain on Christmas Eve, filled Lampard’s vacancy in the Stamford Bridge dugout, where he has overseen a dramatic upturn in form, much of which he has publicly attributed to the groundwork and investment in youth undertaken by Lampard in his season-and-a-half in charge.

Lampard could perhaps be forgiven for harboring some ill-intent towards Roman Abramovich and his right-hand woman Marina Granovskaia for shunting him from the club – but the 106-times capped former England international resisted any such statements when prodded in a recent interview.
Also on rt.com ‘Abramovich is BRUTAL & effective, but Lampard deserved more time’: Ex-Chelsea ‘keeper Mark Bosnich to RT Sport (VIDEO)
I’m absolutely appreciative of the opportunity I had to manage Chelsea,” said Lampard at a question-and-answer session in aid of the Willow Foundation. 

It was an incredible time. Everyone knows how I felt about the club.”

Lampard’s magnanimous words match those of Russian owner Abramovich, who issued a rare statement after sacking Lampard in January to pay tribute to arguably the club’s best ever midfielder.

This was a very difficult decision for the club, not least because I have an excellent personal relationship with Frank and I have the utmost respect for him,” Abramovich said at the time.

He is a man of great integrity and has the highest of work ethics. 

He is an important icon of this great club and his status here remains undiminished. He will always be warmly welcomed back at Stamford Bridge.

With history well and truly covered, Lampard soon turned to the future, with the ex-Derby boss revealing that he has been approached by several clubs since January but that he has spurned each and every advance thus far.

Football has consumed my life, firstly as a player and then as a manager,” he said. “Nobody wants to lose their job. But when you go into this career, it can happen –no matter how good you think you are. 

I’ve had some opportunities that have come up in the last six weeks, two months, that have been flattering, but not the right thing. They were not quite right.

Lampard had been heavily linked with the Celtic job which would have opened a new chapter in his rivalry with Rangers boss and former Liverpool midfielder Steven Gerrard, while he has also been touted for the England under-21 position currently occupied by Aidy Boothroyd. 
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Whichever offer Lampard ends up taking, he says that he is just looking forward to resuming his career on the training ground.

“It would be something I’m very keen to do in the right time and place,” he said of a potential new role. “My eyes are always on it.

I’m always watching football and trying to get better. I’ll try and find the right time and right opportunity. I’m very keen to get working again.

How much it consumes you when you’re in it is a big deal. You cannot take away your love of the game. I like to keep involved.”
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‘False and damaging’: Roman Abramovich suing publishers & author after claims Putin ordered him to buy Chelsea

‘False and damaging’: Roman Abramovich suing publishers & author after claims Putin ordered him to buy Chelsea

Chelsea owner Roman Abramovich is suing publishers HarperCollins and author Catherine Belton over “false claims” made in her book ‘Putin’s People’, which the billionaire says is causing damage to the club’s reputation.

Abramovich announced legal action on Monday against the publishers and Belton, who is the former Moscow correspondent for the Financial Times.

Belton’s book ‘Putin’s People’, published last year, includes claims from fugitive investor and Kremlin critic Sergei Pugachev that Abramovich was personally ordered by President Vladimir Putin to buy Chelsea back in 2003.

“The book contains a number of false and defamatory statements about me, including about my purchase, and the activities, of Chelsea Football Club,” read a statement from Abramovich on the London club’s website.

“Today’s action was not taken lightly. It has never been my ambition to gain a public profile and I have always been reluctant to provide commentary on any matters, including any false or misleading statements about me or Chelsea Football Club.

“However, it has become clear that the false allegations in this book are having a damaging effect, not only on my personal reputation, but also in respect of the activities of Chelsea Football Club.”

Abramovich added: “My objective has been to avoid a legal case and my legal team has engaged with the publishers to try to find an amicable resolution.

“We have provided them with detailed information addressing the various false allegations about me in the book, including the repetition of allegations that have already been held to be false in the English High Court during previous legal proceedings.

“Unfortunately, these engagements were not successful, and the publisher has not corrected the false statements in the book.”
Also on rt.com UK’s ‘The Independent’ apologizes to Roman Abramovich, pays Chelsea owner’s legal fees after parroting ‘Putin’s bag carrier’ claim
Abramovich took over as Chelsea owner from Ken Bates in the summer of 2003 and set about transforming the club’s fortunes.

The Russian businessman is said to have invested well over £1 billion ($ 1.38 billion) in the ensuing years, which have been the most successful in Chelsea’s history.

Under Abramovich’s tenure the Stamford Bridge club have won five Premier League titles, five FA Cups, the UEFA Champions League and two UEFA Europa League crowns.

“In contrast to the portrayal in the book, my ambition with Chelsea Football Club has always been to create world class teams on the pitch and to ensure the club plays a positive role in all of its communities,” Abramovich added in his statement.

“I believe our successes and activities over the years speak for themselves, including the trophies won, expansion of the Chelsea Academy, development of the Women’s team and the Chelsea Foundation becoming the largest charitable organisation within the Premier League.

“It is my hope that today’s action will not only refute the false allegations in regard to my own name, but also serve as a reminder of Chelsea’s positive footprint in the UK. I have every belief that the courts will give me a fair hearing, as they have in the past.”
Also on rt.com Absent he may be, but Chelsea owner Roman Abramovich has proved he’s as ruthless as ever with Frank Lampard sacking
Abramovich’s time as owner has not been without its problems. The 54-year-oligarch has not been seen at a Chelsea home game for more than two years, after suffering visa issues amid the fallout over the Skripal spy poisoning row between Russia and the UK.

Figures at Chelsea have frequently asserted that Abramovich remains fully committed to the club, as evidenced by the more than £200 million spending spree on new talent which the Blues owner sanctioned before the start of the current season.

Neither HarperCollins nor Belton – whose Twitter account is a steady stream of anti-Kremlin posts – have thus far responded to Abramovich’s statement.
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‘Get out of it’: Chief who sold Chelsea to Roman Abramovich slams foreign owners, tells United, Liverpool to leave Premier League

‘Get out of it’: Chief who sold Chelsea to Roman Abramovich slams foreign owners, tells United, Liverpool to leave Premier League

Ex-Chelsea supremo Ken Bates has said that American-owned Man United and Liverpool should have been allowed to resign from the Premier League last year, slating England’s “weak” Football Association (FA) over foreign owner rules.

Businessman and hotelier Ken Bates bought the Blues for less than $ 2 in 1982, playing a role in the creation of the Premier League ten years later before becoming one of the most prominent and notoriously forthright owners in the English top flight.

Despite his successful sale of his shares in Chelsea to Roman Abramovich for around $ 24.5 million in 2003, Bates believes that the governing body should tighten its rules around foreign ownership and has been unimpressed with the approaches he has perceived rival Premier League heavyweights as taking.

“Manchester United owned by Americans. Liverpool owned by other Americans,” Bates told The Telegraph, discussing the much-maligned Project Big Picture discussions that were panned when they were held over proposals to transform English football last autumn.

“The first thing they said was, ‘let’s reduce the Premier League by two clubs.’ Let those two resign.

“Get out of it. Nobody asked for them to come. The great thing about English football is you kick off [at the start of each season] in August and all start even.

“What you did 20 years ago has nothing to do with what you do today. The trouble is that the FA are very weak.

“I found that when I was on the FA council and the FA board. They should have introduced rules preventing foreign ownership of football clubs.”

Bates, who later took over at current top-flight side Leeds during their struggles, credited himself with “rebuilding” Chelsea and said that their win in the 1998 Super Cup was his crowning glory.

“We were champions of Europe and 16 years before we were bankrupt,” he claimed. “We couldn’t pay the players’ wages. It hasn’t been a bad journey.”

Now based in Monaco, Bates believes that English football authorities should add taxes to payments involved in the transfers of foreign players and charge outgoing transfer fees against tax.

“That will bring down the transfer fees, reduce the number of foreign players coming in and let the English players play in their English league,” he argued.

Bates sold his stake in Leeds to Bahrain-based GFH Capital in 2013. He was briefly installed as club president at Elland Road before claiming that he had been sacked over a dispute involving a company jet contract, said to have been worth around $ 700,000 over three years and partly used to transport him between Monaco and the UK.
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