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‘The United Kingdom has never in my lifetime been under such strain’

There is perhaps no challenge greater than that of the constitutional future of Wales. There are those who say that these issues are unimportant and we should just be concentrating on post Covid recovery and related issues.

Well of course, post covid recovery, jobs, our youth guarantee, tackling the climate emergency , restarting NHS operations and many other issues are absolutely vital priorities. But a failure to recognise that the very ability to deliver on all of these is very dependent on the allocation of powers and resources within Wales and the UK. That is why constitutional reform is so important; it is the means whereby we can deliver what we have promised to the people of Wales and to future generations. It is the means for improving prosperity and job security; it is the means whereby we deliver those vital public services that we have come to recognise as being part of our essential economy.

It is the means whereby we build a fairer, more just and more confident Wales and the contribution we can make to the well being of the UK as a whole. If I am right in this, then a failure by governments across the UK to address these constitutional challenges would be foolhardy and wholly irresponsible.

The Union of the United Kingdom has never in my lifetime been under such strain. My position and the position of the Welsh Government is that we want that union to work better in the interests of the people and the communities of Wales and that will require radical reform.

Welsh Labour fought the election with what I believe is the most radical proposal for constitutional reform in our recent history. We were elected with a popular mandate for change.

So I will be setting out today a little more detail about the Constitutional Convention we will be establishing here in Wales, against that context of ever growing concerns about the state of our Union.

The Welsh Government believes in a strong, prosperous and progressive Union of nations.

We see it as a voluntary association of four nations that has the potential to be a positive force for good – for Wales and for all nations within it. We benefit from the pooling of resources which support all of us in times of need. I will put this in my own words, if the UK means anything and is to have a future it must be based on principles of partnership, justice, the rule of law , of greater equality and a fairer distribution of wealth between all the nations and regions of the UK.

Despite our many disagreements with the UK Government, there remain many areas of common and mutual benefit. Many of these do not work as they should, could be much more effective and much more progressive. Nevertheless they exist and provide a framework to build upon. In recent months the furlough scheme has become and example of the powerful and important support it can provide – support for individuals and businesses based on principles of common interest and collective support. Something that individually all the nations of the UK would have struggled to achieve.

The UK is a powerful engine of redistribution – systems of welfare and healthcare testament to the criticality of the power of collective provision, but could be much more so. In fact I would suggest that over the past decade the growth of inequality, the undermining of the welfare state and common principles of mutualism, on an unprecedented scale is a major contributor to the increasing instability of the UK.

Yes, there are many differences, but the collective strength of what we can do together is something people across the UK I believe do recognise and value.

And as we sit here now in 2021, it is clear to me that only through radical reform – through genuine devolution and the recognition of shared sovereignty that can we build the strong and durable partnership that is so vital for the future.

The Welsh response to Covid has shown how important it has been to be able to take distinctive decisions in Wales to reflect the needs of people and communities in Wales based on Welsh circumstances.

The distinctiveness we see in policy responses across the devolved governments – response which are themselves innovative and creative responses to the challenges which face us – are often not given the recognition and the respect they deserve.

That distinctiveness that actually makes us stronger, yet is too often seen as a weakness and a threat by the UK Government at Westminster. So there are growing concerns. Concerns growing across the political spectrum. Concerns that, today, the Union looks neither strong nor stable. And for anyone committed to a long-term future for the United Kingdom, , how we address and rectify that fragility is one of the major questions of our time.

Recent, unwelcome developments have contributed to that fragility and I’ll say more about those in a moment.

Some of the threats to the union are deep-seated.

In some ways the Union has failed to keep pace with, what I see, as the bold and radical change to the UK’s Constitution that people voted for in 1999.

The full and very real implications of the creation of legislatures in Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland has not been met by the UK Government with what it should have – a fundamental and honest look at the way the UK was itself governed against the backdrop of that newly devolved landscape. In short, insufficient attention has been given, by successive governments, to the way in which our four nations should talk and act together on matters of shared interest and which affect all parts of the UK.

That’s why the Welsh Government has for the last decade sought to stimulate a debate about the constitutional future of the UK.
We sought to start the kind of fundamental debate that is vital to our future and that of the nation of the UK and indeed the regions of England.

As a Welsh Government we’ve consistently advocated the case for a constitutional convention. We’ve tried to articulate our own vision for how a new model of shared governance could work. The policy papers we developed as the debate about our exit from the EU developed, were a genuine, honest and transparent attempt by us to out concrete proposals on the table.

In 2019 we took this work on and through our original ‘Reforming our Union’ paper set out twenty propositions for the future governance of the UK. Not a final package; not a finished work – but twenty areas which we have consistently raised and which we believe are crucial to the reform of the UK.

However, the UK Governments has time and time again to recognise that there is a major problem, and address the major constitutional questions facing us.

I should stress that not all the answers to these challenges require substantive constitutional reform.

For example, for both devolution and the Union to deliver the best outcomes for citizens, we need a consistently constructive and collaborative relationship between all governments of the UK.

That ought to be entirely possible within the existing constitutional settlement. But that is simply not our experience, particularly since late 2019. The reform to the intergovernmental structures, including the JMC, which is essential if this constructive and collaborative relationship is to be put on a firm foundation, has simply not materialised.

Yes, there have been flickers of positive change, but it has simply not gone far enough, or fast enough, to provide a substantive answer to the scale of the challenges we face. Instead of a constructive and collaborative relationship, based on fairness, social justice and subsidiarity, what we see from this current UK Government is an increasingly muscular anglo centric unionism.

A top-down unionism that believes that the problem will simply go away if it shouts loudly enough and waves a few flags around. A Government that is in denial. Since 2019 when we published our original ‘Reforming our Union’ programme, devolution has found itself under unprecedented assault.

I’ll give one illustrative example.

In 2019 there were those who remained hopeful that the UK Government’s disregard for the refusal of the Scottish Parliament to consent to the European Union (Withdrawal) Act 2018 was an isolated one-off decision. Set against the background of the unprecedented upheavals of EU exit, the actions were unique to the situation we faced.

But since December 2019, the Sewel Convention has been breached with such regularity that the UK Government actions appear to signal a new, more combative position.

Perhaps the most damaging breach was that related to the UK Internal Market Act.
Here, we had a Bill which flagrantly cut across devolved powers, usurping functions that clearly sat within the competence of the devolved governments.

Rushed through the UK Parliament with unseemly haste and minimal scrutiny, it sat in defiance of a refusal to give consent from both the Senedd and the Scottish Parliament.

It’s hard to understate the seriousness of such actions.

It’s hard to understand how the provisions in this Act are anything other than a significant assault on the Senedd and our policies of social and economic reform by undermining the very powers at the core of devolution, and are little more than an attempt to achieve through this Act what the UK Government has been unable to achieve through the ballot box in Wales.

Powers endorsed in two referendums by the people of Wales.

But even if one does not share our assessment of the many flaws of that Act, it is simply not possible to argue that the manner in which the Bill was rushed through Parliament, and brought into law in defiance of the refusal to consent, demonstrated the proper respect for the democratic institutions of Wales.
It is simply not possible to argue that it respects the conventions upon which a strong, stable Union should be based, parliamentary democracy and the rule of law.

It is largely in response to that assault on devolution that we published, last week, a refreshed version of ‘Reforming our Union’.
As the first version was, it is not a brand new vision for the future governance of the UK.

The 20 propositions we set out in the original document remain front and centre of this refresh, because they themselves remain a practical, pragmatic and coherent set of propositions for the way in which the UK should be governed. But there are areas where matters have evolved and where things have happened which need to be reflected in the text.

One is in relation to justice. In 2019 our proposition on justice looked forward to the report and recommendations of the Commission on Justice in Wales, referring to the substantial evidence we as a Welsh Government had submitted to it.

That work has since completed and we now have the unequivocal backing of that Commission for the devolution of justice to Wales.
In 2019, we described our concerns about the Sewel Convention.

Its non-justiciability, the lack of any codification of what constitutes ‘not normally’, and the absence of any mechanism for Parliament to consider properly the implications of a refusal to give legislative consent to a UK Bill.

At that point we hoped that the UK Government’s disregard of the Scottish Parliaments’ refusal to consent to the EU Withdrawal Act would remain a one-off.

But since 2019, we have seen repeated and sustained breaches of the Sewel Convention, to a point where it now appears that the UK Government views compliance as an entirely discretionary matter.

This only adds weight to our calls for codifying Sewel and recognising it properly in UK Parliamentary procedure.
If this is not done, the case for our more radical solution, where the UK Parliament would be prevented from legislating in devolved areas without the Senedd’s consent, will only continue to strengthen.

We recognise, of course, that such a fundamental change could only happen in the context of a much wider constitutional reform.
That’s why we need to keep discussing and debating these issues.

We don’t have all the answers, we’ve never claimed to.

And that in turn is one of the reasons for our commitment to establish our own Constitutional Convention and Commission , to engage with the people of Wales to examine the governance of Wales, devolution and out future relationship with the UK and the principles on which it should be based.

We want this Commission to facilitate a genuinely national conversation about the future of Wales within the UK.

We want it to engage with citizens and with civic society.

In particular we want it to reach out to those who might not otherwise come forward to participate in such a debate, to those people and communities who are largely disengaged from politics or rather who have become sceptical about its relevance to their lives and that of their families and its ability to make a difference.

We will establish a commission of citizens. They will be people who will represent the diversity of our society and communities and who will have the skills and ability to reach out and engage.

Their task will be to seek to identify and build consensus about our values and the sort of Wales we want to be.
We will encourage the Commission to think about how its work can support the seven wellbeing goals, as set out in the Well-being of Future Generations Act and to operate in way which is consistent with the five ways of working the Act sets out.

We will encourage the Commission to identify and learn from the best examples of citizen engagement and to be innovative in the way in which it approaches its task. It must be a peoples commission engaged in a peoples conversation , a genuine grass roots engagement . How we achieve that will be our biggest challenge.

We will need to develop a new language of engagement, one that avoids the language of politics and constitutions that we are so used to, a language that talks about the things that are directly relevant to peoples lives.

To assist the Commissioners, we will establish an expert panel to advise the Commission.

They will provide the expertise and the hard data and information, which we hope will free up more of the Commissioners’ time to focus on the big conversation we want to initiate.

Our first step will be to appoint a Chair a vice chair or even co-chairs, this is work in progress and I hope to be able to say more about this in a statement I will be making to the Senedd over the next few weeks.

From there, we will work through the summer and into the early autumn to appoint the Commissioners, to put in place a secretariat and the other structures necessary to enable the Commission to effectively fulfil its remit.

That remit will be designed by the Welsh Government, but in doing so we will work with the Chair to refine and finalise the Commission’s terms of reference.

In appointing the Commissioners, we will strive to ensure that the Commission as a whole reflects the diversity of modern Wales.
Reflects the citizens and the places with which it will need to engage.
We will need to strike the right balance between knowledge, independence, and representativeness as we appoint members to the Commission.

The Commission will be tasked with producing a report with its recommendations and conclusions within 18-24 months and to include recommendations about the possibility of a longer term standing commission to carry forward its work and the delivery of constitutional reform.

I intend to announce the formal launch of the commission in the early autumn.

I want to finish – as the First Minister did in his statement to the Senedd last week – on a positive note. I remain of the fundamental view that it is possible to renew and revitalise our union. Convinced that we can find a way for it to thrive and prosper for the long-term.

Not in spite of devolution, but very much because of it. However, this requires thought, imagination and co-operation.

Genuine statecraft – on the part of all of us to think through honestly and creatively the challenges we face. Above all it requires an acceptance that the status quo cannot and will not continue.

I am confident that the Commission will play a vital part in this renewal, and in making the positive case for strong devolution within a durable Union that, for all its current fragilities, remains good for Wales.

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Does the Delta strain require fully vaccinated people to wear masks? Is it worse than other strains of coronavirus? We tackle these questions and more.

Do vaccines work against the Delta variant?

Yes, research suggests – as long as you’re fully vaccinated and don’t skip a dose.

Two doses of the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine offered 88% protection against symptomatic Covid-19 caused by the Delta variant, said Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

But those who get only one dose of the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine have just 33% protection against the Delta variant, US Surgeon General Dr. Vivek Murthy said.

“The key is: Get vaccinated. Get both doses,” Murthy said.

Moderna’s two-dose vaccine was found in lab experiments to work against new variants such as the Delta strain, the company said. Scientists used serum samples from eight participants taken a week after they received their second dose of the Moderna vaccine.

And researchers say the single-dose Johnson & Johnson vaccine also appears to work against the Delta variant. The researchers studied blood taken from eight vaccinated volunteers and tested it against an engineered version of the spike protein of the Delta variant.

“A single dose of the Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine generated neutralizing antibodies against a range of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern, which increased over time, including against the increasingly prevalent and more transmissible Delta (B.1.617.2) variant,” Johnson & Johnson said on July 1.

But the Delta variant is more contagious than both the original strain of novel coronavirus and the Alpha (B.1.1.7) strain that’s currently dominant in the US, the surgeon general said.

“It’s yet another reason to get vaccinated quickly,” Murthy said.

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What is the Delta variant? Is it worse than other strains of coronavirus?

The Delta variant is the B.1.617.2 strain of coronavirus first identified in India that’s now spreading in the US and around the world.

The Delta strain has a cluster of mutations, including one known as L452R, that helps it infect human cells more easily.

“This variant is even more transmissible than the UK (Alpha) variant, which was more transmissible than the version of the virus we were dealing with last year,” US Surgeon General Dr. Vivek Murthy said.

In addition to increased transmissibility, “it may be associated with an increased disease severity, such as hospitalization risk,” said Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

An analysis of 38,805 sequenced cases in England showed the Delta variant carried 2.61 times the risk of hospitalization within 14 days compared with the Alpha variant, when variables such as age, sex, ethnicity and vaccination status were taken into consideration.

By mid-June, the Delta variant accounted for 99% of Covid-19 cases in the UK, according to Public Health England.

“We don’t want to let happen in the United States what is happening currently in the UK, where you have a troublesome variant essentially taking over as the dominant variant,” Fauci said.

It’s happened before. The Alpha (B.1.1.7) variant first found in the UK is “stickier” and more contagious than the original strain of novel coronavirus. It spread rapidly and became the dominant strain in the US.

Now the more contagious Delta variant is expected to take over as the dominant US strain in the coming months, the director of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said. In recent weeks, the number of known Delta cases has been doubling every two weeks in the US — making up 26.1% of sequenced Covid-19 cases as of June 19, according to CDC data.

The genetic sequencing company Helix said its testing indicates Delta already accounts for 40% of US Covid-19 cases.

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Do fully vaccinated people need to wear masks because of this Delta strain?

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When can younger kids get a Covid-19 vaccine?

One vaccine is already available for children ages 12 and up, and clinical trials are underway for younger children.

Pfizer/BioNTech’s vaccine is the only one currently authorized for people ages 12 and up. The vaccine is now being tested in children between 6 months and 11 years old. If all goes well, Pfizer said, it plans to ask the US Food and Drug Administration in September to authorize the vaccine for children ages 2 to 11 years.

Learn more about why parents volunteered their babies and young children for vaccine trials and why doctors say it’s important to vaccinate kids against Covid-19

Moderna’s vaccine is currently authorized for adults 18 and older. In May, the company said early trial data showed the vaccine is safe and appears to be effective in 12- to 17-year-olds. In June, Moderna said it has asked the FDA to authorize its vaccine for the 12-to-17 age group.

Moderna is also testing various doses of its vaccine in younger children between ages 6 months through 11 years. If all goes well, Moderna said, children under age 12 could be eligible for the vaccine this winter or in early 2022.

Johnson & Johnson said it plans to start testing its Covid-19 vaccine in adolescents starting this fall. Its single-dose vaccine is currently authorized for adults ages 18 and up.

J&J said it’s planning four late-stage vaccine trials for children. This first trial will focus on 12- to 17-year-olds, and the others will expand to include younger children. In total, J&J plans to enroll a minimum of 4,500 pediatric participants up to age 17.

“To keep children safe, and ultimately to achieve herd immunity, it is imperative that COVID-19 vaccine clinical trials continue to move forward in this population,” J&J said in a July 1 email to CNN.

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What’s the difference between the Delta and Delta Plus variants?

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Why do we keep getting more contagious variants?

The more people who get infected with a virus, the more chances the virus has to evolve through mutation.

Viruses mutate all the time as they replicate in people who are infected. Some mutations aren’t very important. But if the mutations are significant, they can lead to more contagious or more dangerous new variants of a virus.

Think of a virus as a necklace full of different-colored beads,” board-certified internist Dr. Jorge Rodriguez said.

“And in position No. 1, you need a red bead. Position No. 2 is a green bead. That’s the genetic code – that sequence of bead colors,” he said.

“When a virus replicates, it is supposed to make an exact replica of those bead colors. But every once in a while, maybe a green bead gets into where a red bead is supposed to be.”

When mutations give the virus an advantage — such as the ability to replicate faster, or to hide from the immune system – that version will outcompete others.

The only way to get rid of variants is to lower the number of infections, said Penny Moore, an expert in viruses at South Africa’s National Institute for Communicable Diseases.

That’s a big reason why doctors urge people to get vaccinated as soon as they can. Those who don’t get vaccinated aren’t just risking their own health — they’re also jeopardizing the health of others, infectious disease specialists say.

Unvaccinated people are potential variant factories,” said Dr. William Schaffner, a professor in the Division of Infectious Diseases at Vanderbilt University Medical Center.

“The more unvaccinated people there are, the more opportunities for the virus to multiply.”

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Is it true that kids can’t spread coronavirus to others or can’t get very sick from it?

Schools/Education family transmission vaccine myths & misinformation

What should I tell friends, family or coworkers who are hesitant to get vaccinated?

“It is a normal human reaction to be afraid,” pediatrician Dr. Edith Bracho-Sanchez said. “They’re having a normal reaction, and perhaps they haven’t been able to sit down with their physician.”

She suggests finding a time to have a calm, rational conversation — when neither person is angry or likely to start a fight.

“The first thing I would say is ‘I get it. I totally get where you’re coming from and I understand that you’re concerned about this,’” Bracho-Sanchez said.

It’s also important to cite scientific data — like the truth about side effects, the safety of Covid-19 vaccines and why it’s important for young, healthy people to get vaccinated.

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Is it safe to go on vacation?

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Will we need Covid-19 booster shots? If so, how will we know when we need them?

It’s not clear if or when vaccine booster shots might be needed, CDC Director Dr. Rochelle Walensky said in late May.

As of April, research showed the Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna vaccines stayed highly effective for at least six months (and counting).

In July, Johnson & Johnson said research shows its vaccine is effective for at least eight months (and counting).

But it’s not clear how long the protection provided by vaccines will last.

“We don’t know if it’s a year. We don’t know if it’s nine months. We don’t know if it’s two years yet,” board-certified internist Dr. Jorge Rodriguez said.

“Obviously, the people that were in the (vaccine trial) studies that started in October or so, they’re being followed on a regular basis” to help determine how long vaccine immunity lasts, Rodriguez said.

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How long does immunity last if you recover from Covid-19?

Research is still evolving, but a recent study examining antibodies suggests you could be immune for months after infection.

“Although this cannot provide conclusive evidence that these antibody responses protect from reinfection, we believe it is very likely that they will decrease the odds ratio of reinfection,” researchers from Mount Sinai wrote.

“It is still unclear if infection with SARS-CoV-2 [the scientific name for the novel coronavirus] in humans protects from reinfection and for how long.”

There have been some reports of people getting infected twice within several months. Doctors said a 25-year-old Nevada man appeared to be the first documented case of Covid-19 reinfection in the US. He was first diagnosed in April 2020, then recovered and tested negative twice. About a month later, he tested positive again.

A separate team of researchers said a 33-year-old man living in Hong Kong had Covid-19 twice, in March and August of 2020.

Last year, an 89-year-old Dutch woman – who also had a rare white blood cell cancer – died after catching Covid-19 twice, experts said. She became the first known person to die after getting reinfected.

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If I already had Covid-19, should I still get vaccinated?

“Yes, you should be vaccinated regardless of whether you already had COVID-19,” the CDC says.

“That’s because experts do not yet know how long you are protected from getting sick again after recovering from COVID-19.”

Many doctors believe the immunity you get from vaccination is likely stronger and longer than the immunity you get from previous infection.

“There are actually six other coronaviruses – MERS and SARS and four other viruses that create the common cold. They don’t seem to do very well at creating long-term immunity,” epidemiologist Dr. Larry Brilliant said.

“Many of the vaccines that we’ve made in history are actually stronger than the virus is itself at creating immunity.”

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Could I get coronavirus from the Covid-19 vaccine?

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How good are these vaccines? Why should I get a Johnson & Johnson vaccine if the numbers don’t seem as good as the others?

Vaccine work/life treatment & prevention

Will Americans be required to get a Covid-19 vaccine? What happens if I don’t get vaccinated?

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How much does a Covid-19 vaccine cost?

“It’s all free. The government is paying for this,” said Dr. Paul Offit, director of the Vaccine Education Center at the Children’s Hospital in Philadelphia.

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I know vaccines help prevent people from getting *sick* with coronavirus. But do they also prevent people from *carrying* the virus and infecting others?

There’s growing evidence suggesting vaccines could also help prevent you from spreading coronavirus. But the CDC says there’s not enough data yet to prove whether vaccinated people could still carry the virus and infect others.

Moderna said its vaccine may be able to prevent infection and transmission.

“What Moderna did … is they took some extra samples, or test swabs, from the subject in the clinical trial between the first and second dose of vaccine. Remember, they give you two doses, and after four weeks they get that second dose of vaccine,” said Dr. Rick Bright, former head of the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority.

“They looked at these samples, and they found out that more people who received the placebo dose got infected from the coronavirus than the people who get the vaccine dose. That means the first dose of vaccine actually could be offering some level of protection against infection – not just protection from severe illness,” he said.

“So if this plays out in a larger study, in a larger analysis, it could be very compelling to show that these vaccines could have impact over this protection of infection.”

(But you should not skip your second dose of a two-dose vaccine. Here’s why.)

A study from the UK suggests the Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine, which has not yet been authorized for use in the US, might also help slow the spread of coronavirus. Researchers measured transmission by swabbing some participants for the virus every week. They found that the rate of positive tests declined by about half after two doses of the vaccine.

The FDA said it’s not yet clear whether the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine prevents people from infecting others.

“Most vaccines that protect from viral illnesses also reduce transmission of the virus that causes the disease by those who are vaccinated,” the FDA said. “While it is hoped this will be the case, the scientific community does not yet know if the Pfizer/BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine will reduce such transmission.”

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What are the side effects of the vaccines?

Some people have reported feeling temporary, flu-like symptoms. Don’t freak out if this happens to you, health experts say.

“These are immune responses, so if you feel something after vaccination, you should expect to feel that,” said Patricia Stinchfield of Children’s Hospitals and Clinics of Minnesota.

“And when you do, it’s normal that you have some arm soreness or some fatigue or some body aches or even some fever,” Stinchfield said.

Read more about what to do if you do get side effects and why side effects are often a good sign.

The Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine has shown no serious safety concerns, Pfizer said. Pfizer has said side effects “such as fever, fatigue and chills” have been “generally mild to moderate” and lasted one to two days.

Moderna said its vaccine did not have any serious side effects. It said a small percentage of trial participants had symptoms such as body aches and headaches.

With the Johnson & Johnson vaccine, the most common side effects were pain at the injection site, headache, fatigue and muscle pain. While the CDC recommends the Johnson & Johnson vaccine, “women younger than 50 years old especially should be aware of the rare but increased risk of thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS),” the agency says. “TTS is a serious condition that involves blood clots with low platelets. There are other COVID-19 vaccine options available for which this risk has not been seen.”

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What are the long-term effects of coronavirus?

Some Covid-19 survivors have reported problems weeks or months after testing positive.

Even young adults have suffered long-lasting symptoms such as shortness of breath, chronic fatigue, brain fog, long-term fever, coughing, memory loss, and the inability to taste or smell.

One CDC study found 35% of survivors surveyed still had symptoms two to three weeks after their coronavirus tests:

  • In the 18-to-34 age group, 26% said they still had symptoms weeks later.
  • In the 35-to-49 age range, 32% were still grappling with the effects weeks later.
  • For those 50 and older, 47% said they still had symptoms weeks later.

And the risk of death from coronavirus-related heart damage seems to be far greater than previously thought, the American Heart Association said.

Inflammation of the vascular system and injury to the heart occur in 20% to 30% of hospitalized Covid-19 patients and contribute to 40% of deaths, the AHA said. AHA President Dr. Mitchell Elkind said cardiac complications of Covid-19 could linger after recovering from coronavirus.

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What is aerosolized spread? What’s the difference between aerosols and droplets?

Aerosolized spread is the potential for coronavirus to spread not just by respiratory droplets, but by even smaller particles called aerosols that can float in the air longer than droplets and can spread farther than 6 feet.

Respiratory aerosols and droplets are released when someone talks, breaths, sings, sneezes or coughs. But the main difference is size.

Respiratory droplets are bigger – between 5 and 10 microns in diameter. (For perspective, a human hair is typically 60 to 120 microns wide.)

“If you have droplets that come out of a person, they generally go down within 6 feet,” said Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

But aerosols (aka droplet nuclei) are smaller – less than 5 microns in diameter, according to the World Health Organization.

“Aerosol means the droplets don’t drop immediately,” Fauci said. “They hang around for a period of time.”

This becomes “very relevant” when you are indoors and there is poor ventilation, he said.

There’s good enough data to say that aerosol transmission (of coronavirus) does occur,” Fauci said

Multiple case studies suggest coronavirus can spread well beyond 6 feet through airborne transmission, such as during choir practices, said Dr. Amy Compton-Phillips, chief clinical officer of Providence Health System.

In Washington state, for example, 53 members of a choir fell sick and two people died after one member attended rehearsals and later tested positive for Covid-19.

In July, 239 scientists backed a letter urging public health agencies to recognize the potential for aerosolized spread.

“There is significant potential for inhalation exposure to viruses in microscopic respiratory droplets (microdroplets) at short to medium distances (up to several meters, or room scale), and we are advocating for the use of preventive measures to mitigate this route of airborne transmission,” the letter said.

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This pandemic is taking a toll on my mental health. How can I get help if I’m feeling isolated and depressed?

The Crisis Text Line is available texting to 741741. Trained volunteers and crisis counselors are staffed 24/7, and the service is free.

The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Disaster Distress Helpline provides 24/7, 365-day-a-year crisis counseling and support to people experiencing emotional distress related to disasters. Call 1-800-985-5990 or text TalkWithUs to 66746 to connect with a trained crisis counselor.

For health care professionals and essential workers, For the Frontlines offers free 24/7 crisis counseling and support for workers dealing with stress, anxiety, fear or isolation related to coronavirus.

For more resources, check out CNN’s guide to giving and getting help during the pandemic.

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What “underlying conditions” put people at higher risk of bad outcomes with Covid-19?

More than 40% of US adults have at least one underlying condition that can put them at higher risk of severe complications, according to the CDC.

Those conditions include obesity, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart disease, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease, according to the CDC.

People who have cancer, an organ transplant, sickle cell anemia, poorly controlled HIV or any autoimmune disorder are also at higher risk.

Covid-19 patients with pre-existing conditions — regardless of their age — are 6 times more likely to hospitalized and 12 times more likely to die from the disease than those who had no pre-existing conditions, CNN Chief Medical Correspondent Dr. Sanjay Gupta said.

While young, healthy people are less likely to die from Covid-19, many are suffering long-term effects from the disease.

Treatment & prevention transmission family work/life

What are the guidelines for riding in a car with someone from another household?

Unvaccinated people from different households in a car should wear face masks, said Dr. Aaron Hamilton of the Cleveland Clinic.

“You should also wear one if you’re rolling down your window to interact with someone at a drive-thru or curbside pickup location,” Hamilton said.

It’s also smart to keep the windows open to help ventilate the car and add another layer of safety, said Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

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What should I do if I’m wearing a mask but have to sneeze?

If there are tissues nearby, you can take your mask off and sneeze into the tissue before putting your mask back on, CNN Chief Medical Correspondent Dr. Sanjay Gupta said.

For kids in school — or anyone else who might have to wear a mask all day — keep a backup mask in a baggie in case the first mask gets dirty. You can put the dirty mask in the baggie.

It’s also a good idea to keep backup masks in your car in case of any mask accidents.

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Are coronavirus and Covid-19 the same thing? How did they get their names?

Coronavirus and Covid-19 are not the same thing, but sometimes the terms can be used interchangeably.

This “novel coronavirus” is novel because it just emerged in humans in late 2019. There have been six other coronaviruses known to infect humans, such as SARS (circa 2003) and MERS (circa 2012).

“Coronaviruses are named for the crown-like spikes on their surface,” or coronas, the CDC says. The scientific name for this novel coronavirus is SARS-CoV-2, which stands for “severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.”

Covid-19, however, is the disease caused by the novel coronavirus. The letters and numbers in “Covid-19” come from “Coronavirus disease 2019.”

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If a pregnant woman gets Covid-19, will her baby be infected? Can babies get coronavirus through breastfeeding?

Family transmission work/life treatment & prevention myths & misinformation

Can someone who died from coronavirus still have their organs donated?

That’s not recommended right now, according to the US Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network.

“This guidance may change as more becomes known about the course and treatment of COVID-19,” the network said.

“Donation and transplant clinicians should apply their medical judgment in instances where test results are pending at the time of organ offers.”

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Should we clean our cell phones daily?

Yes, that’s a good idea because cell phones are basically “petri dishes in our pockets” when you think about how many surfaces you touch before touching your phone.

You should regularly disinfect your mobile phone anyway, with or without a coronavirus pandemic.

“There’s probably quite a lot of microorganisms on there, because you’re holding them against your skin, you are handling them all the time, and also you’re speaking into them,” said Mark Fielder, a professor of medical microbiology at Kingston University.

“And speaking does release droplets of water just in normal speech. So it’s likely that a range of microbes – including Covid-19, should you happen to be infected with that virus – might end up on your phone.”

Watch the best ways to disinfect your cell phone here.

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Is it safe to go back to the gym?

There are certainly risks if you’re not vaccinated.

Coronavirus often spreads more easily indoors rather than outdoors — especially if you’re indoors for an extended period of time.

Researchers have also found that heavy breathing and singing can propel aerosolized viral particles farther and increase the risk of transmission.

During one fitness instructor workshop, about 30 participants with no symptoms trained intensely for four hours, according to research published by the CDC. Eight participants later tested positive, and more than 100 new cases of coronavirus were traced back to that fitness workshop.

To help mitigate the risk, many gyms are limiting capacity or requiring masks.

And while health experts have recommended staying 6 feet away from others, it’s smart to keep even more distance than that at the gym.

“With all the heavy breathing, you may even want to double the usual 6 feet to 12 feet, just to be safe,” CNN Chief Medical Correspondent Dr. Sanjay Gupta said.

Transmission work/life treatment & prevention

I tested positive for coronavirus weeks ago. How long are people contagious with Covid-19? Do I need to keep isolating or getting retested?

For symptomatic carriers: If it’s been at least 10 days since your symptoms started and at least 24 hours since you’ve had a fever (without the help of fever-reducing medication) and your other symptoms have improved, you can go ahead and stop isolating, the CDC says.

Patients with severe illness may have to keep isolating for up to 20 days after symptoms started.

(But it’s important to note symptoms typically don’t show up until several days after infection — and you can be more contagious during this pre-symptomatic time. Also, symptoms can last for weeks or months — including in young people.)

For asymptomatic carriers: People who tested positive but don’t have any symptoms can stop isolating 10 days after the first positive test – as long as they have not subsequently developed symptoms, the CDC says.

But 10 days is just a general guideline: “Because symptoms cannot be used to gauge where these individuals are in the course of their illness, it is possible that the duration of viral shedding could be longer or shorter than 10 days after their first positive test,” the CDC warned. With viral shedding, a person can infect others with the virus, even if they have no symptoms.

Asymptomatic carriers who have tested positive can also stop isolating if they get two negative test results from tests taken more than 24 hours apart. At that point, it’s very unlikely they are still contagious.

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I heard you can get Covid-19 through your eyes. Should we wear goggles, too?

Doctors say wearing eye protection (in addition to face masks) could help some people, but it’s not necessary for everyone.

Teachers who have younger students in the classroom are “likely to be in environments where children might pull down their masks, or not be very compliant with them,” epidemiologist Saskia Popescu said. “There is concern that you could get respiratory droplets in the eyes.”

If you’re a health care worker or taking care of someone at home who has coronavirus, it’s smart to wear eye protection, said Dr. Thomas Steinemann, clinical spokesperson for the American Academy of Ophthalmology.

(Note: Regular glasses or sunglasses aren’t enough, because they leave too many gaps around the eyes.)

But if you’re vaccinated or not in a high-risk situation, wearing goggles isn’t necessary.

While it’s still possible to get Covid-19 through the eyes, that scenario is less likely than getting it through your nose or mouth, Steinemann said.

He said if a significant number of people were getting coronavirus through their eyes, doctors would probably see more Covid-19 patients with conjunctivitis, also known as pink eye (though having pink eye doesn’t necessarily mean you have coronavirus).

Transmission work/life treatment & prevention schools/education myths & misinformation

Should people wear face shields instead of (or in addition to) face masks?

The CDC does not recommend using plastic face shields for everyday activities or as a substitute for face masks. There are a few exceptions, such as for those who are hearing-impaired and rely on lip-reading or those who have physical or mental health conditions that would be exacerbated by wearing a cloth face mask.

“Cloth face coverings are a critical preventive measure and are most essential in times when social distancing is difficult,” the CDC says.

Clinical and laboratory studies show cloth face coverings reduce the spray of droplets when worn over the nose and mouth – what the CDC refers to as “source control.” And many people are contagious even when they don’t have any symptoms and don’t know they’re infected.

Face shields worn in addition to masks can provide an added layer of protection and can also help people stop touching their faces. Workers who are around people for long periods of time, such as grocery store workers or hospital personnel, may want to wear face shields in addition to masks, to increase their protection.

If someone must use a face shield without a mask, the CDC says the shield “should wrap around the sides of the wearer’s face and extend to below the chin. Disposable face shields should only be worn for a single use. Reusable face shields should be cleaned and disinfected after each use.”

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Doesn’t the flu kill more people than coronavirus?

Transmission family work/life myths & misinformation

Could I have the flu and coronavirus at the same time? If so, what does that do to your body?

“You can certainly get both the flu and Covid-19 at the same time, which could be catastrophic to your immune system,” said Dr. Adrian Burrowes, a family medicine physician in Florida.

In fact, getting infected with one can make you more vulnerable to getting sick with the other, epidemiologist Dr. Seema Yasmin said.

“Once you get infected with the flu and some other respiratory viruses, it weakens your body,” she said. “Your defenses go down, and it makes you vulnerable to getting a second infection on top of that.”

On their own, both Covid-19 and the flu can attack the lungs, potentially causing pneumonia, fluid in the lungs or respiratory failure, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said.

“The two (illnesses) together definitely could be more injurious to the lungs and cause more respiratory failure,” said Dr. Michael Matthay, a professor of medicine at the University of California, San Francisco.

And just like with Covid-19, even young, healthy people can die from the flu.

Doctors say the easiest way to help avoid a flu/Covid-19 double whammy is to get vaccinated.

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How can I tell if I have coronavirus or the flu (or both)?

Both the flu and Covid-19 can give you a fever, cough, shortness of breath, fatigue, sore throat, body aches and a runny or stuffy nose, the CDC said.

“Some people may have vomiting and diarrhea, though this is more common in children than adults,” the CDC said.

But unlike the flu, Covid-19 can cause a loss of taste or smell.

And about half of coronavirus transmissions happen before any symptoms show up. (Many of those people spreading the virus silently are pre-symptomatic and are more contagious before they start showing symptoms.)

So the best way to know if you have the novel coronavirus or the flu (or both) is to get tested. The CDC has created a test that will check for both viruses, to be used at CDC-supported public health labs.

Work/life family treatment & prevention schools/education myths & misinformation

My kids don’t want to wear a mask. What should I do?

Children can be more reluctant because they’re more sensitive to new things than adults are, said Christopher Willard, a psychiatry lecturer at Harvard Medical School.

“There’s also the weird psychological aspect of not being able to see their own face or other people’s faces and facial expressions,” which can hinder their feelings of comfort or safety, he said.

To ease their mask fears, try buying or making masks with fun designs on them. Or have your child customize his or her own masks by drawing on them with markers.

You can also order children’s face masks with superheroes on them or show your kids photos of their favorite celebrities wearing masks.

It’s also important to set a good example by wearing a mask yourself. Show your children your own mask, and let them know that by wearing one, they’ll be just like Mom or Dad.

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How do I prevent my glasses or sunglasses from fogging up when I wear a mask?

First, make sure the top of your mask fits snugly against your skin (to minimize vapor from your breath from going up toward your eyes). Then put your glasses over the snug-fitting top portion of your mask.

If that doesn’t do the trick, soap and water can create a barrier that prevents glasses from fogging up. Here’s how.

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Are cancer patients at higher risk of severe complications from Covid-19?

Yes. And the increased risk applies to cancer patients of all ages, the CDC says.

“Having cancer currently increases your risk of severe illness from COVID-19,” the CDC says. “At this time, it is not known whether having a history of cancer increases your risk.”

Researchers found that patients whose cancer was getting worse or spreading were more than five times more likely to die in a month if they caught Covid-19.

But there are steps cancer patients can take to stay as healthy as possible:

  • Make sure you have at least a 30-day supply of your medications.
  • Don’t delay any life-saving treatment or emergency care during this pandemic.
  • Talk with your healthcare provider about your individual level of risk based on your condition, your treatment, and the level of transmission in your community.
  • Don’t stop taking your medicines or alter your treatment plan without talking to your healthcare provider.
  • Call your healthcare provider if you think you may have been exposed to the novel coronavirus.
  • Read the CDC’s tips for preventing infections in cancer patients.

Family work/life transmission treatment & prevention

Can central air conditioning spread Covid-19 in public places?

Technically, it can, but HVAC (heating/ventilation/air conditioning) systems are not thought to be a significant factor in the spread of coronavirus.

Many modern air conditioning systems will either filter out or dilute the virus. Ventilation systems with highly effective filters are a key way to eliminate droplets from the air, said Harvard environmental health researcher Joseph Gardner Allen.

Filters are rated by a MERV system – their “minimum efficiency reporting value” that specifies their ability to trap tiny particles. The MERV ratings go from 1 to 20. The higher the number, the better the filtration.

HEPA filters have the highest MERV ratings, between 17 and 20. HEPA filters are used by hospitals to create sterile rooms for surgeries and to control infectious diseases. They’re able to remove 99.97% of dust, pollen, mold, bacteria and other airborne particles as small as 0.3 microns.

For context, this coronavirus is thought to be between 0.06 to 1.4 microns in size.

But “HEPA filtration is not always going to be feasible or practical,” Allen said. “But there are other filters that can do the job. What is recommended now by the standard setting body for HVAC is a MERV 13 filter.”

High-efficiency filters in the 13-to-16 MERV range are often used in hospitals, nursing homes, research labs and other places where filtration is important.

“If you’re an owner of a home, building or mall, you want to have someone to assess your system and install the largest MERV number filter the system can reliably handle without dropping the volume of air that runs through it,” advised Erin Bromage, an associate professor of biology at the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth.

“In addition, virtually all modern air conditioning systems in commercial buildings have a process called makeup air where they bring in air from outside and condition it and bring it inside,” Bromage said. “It’s worse in regards to energy, but the more outside air we bring in, the more dilution of the virus we have and then the safer you are.”

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What does asymptomatic mean?

Work/life transmission schools/education

How effective are different types of face masks? Which cloth masks work the best?

An N95 respirator provides the best protection. But throughout the pandemic, N95s have been in high demand and short supply.

As for other masks, different types have different levels of effectiveness, according to researchers at Florida Atlantic University.

They compared four types of face masks commonly used by the public: a stitched mask with two layers of fabric, a commercial cone mask, a folded handkerchief, and a bandana. Researchers tested each to see which would likely offer the most protection if someone coughed or sneezed.

— The stitched mask with two layers of fabric performed the best, with droplets traveling only 2.5 inches.

— With a cone-style mask, the droplets traveled about 8 inches.

— A folded handkerchief performed worse, with droplets traveling 1 foot, 3 inches.

— The bandana gave the least amount of protection of the cloth masks tested, with droplets traveling 3 feet.

— Still, any kind of cloth mask is better than none, the researchers found. Without any covering, droplets were able to travel 8 feet.

“People need to know that wearing masks can reduce transmission of the virus by as much as 50%, and those who refuse are putting their lives, their families, their friends, and their communities at risk,” said Dr. Christopher Murray, director of the University of Washington’s Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation.

Treatment & prevention transmission

What’s so different about coronavirus that made us shut down the economy? Why did we have to practice social distancing when we didn’t during the SARS and swine flu epidemics?

Unlike SARS and swine flu, the novel coronavirus is both highly contagious and especially deadly, CNN Chief Medical Correspondent Dr. Sanjay Gupta said.

“SARS was also a coronavirus, and it was a new virus at the time,” Gupta said. “In the end, we know that SARS ended up infecting 8,000 people around the world and causing around 800 deaths. So very high fatality rate, but it didn’t turn out to be very contagious.”

The swine flu, or H1N1, “was very contagious and infected some 60 million people in the United States alone within a year,” Gupta said. “But it was far less lethal than the flu even — like 1/3 as lethal as the flu.”

What makes the novel coronavirus different is that “this is both very contagious … and it appears to be far more lethal than the flu as well.”

Work/life transmission treatment & prevention

When are people with coronavirus most contagious?

“People can be contagious without symptoms. And in fact – a little bit strangely in this case — people tend to be the most contagious before they develop symptoms, if they’re going to develop symptoms,” CNN Chief Medical Correspondent Dr. Sanjay Gupta said.

“They call that the pre-symptomatic period. So people tend to have more virus at that point seemingly in their nose, in their mouth. This is even before they get sick. And they can be shedding that virus into the environment.”

Some people infected with coronavirus never get symptoms. But it’s easy for these asymptomatic carriers to infect others, said Anne Rimoin, an epidemiology professor at UCLA’s School of Public Health.

“When you speak, sometimes you’ll spit a little bit,” she said. “You’ll rub your nose. You’ll touch your mouth. You’ll rub your eyes. And then you’ll touch other surfaces, and then you will be spreading virus if you are infected and shedding asymptomatically.”

That’s why health officials suggests people wear face masks while in public and when it’s difficult to stay 6 feet away from others.

Transmission treatment & prevention myths & misinformation

Can you get Covid-19 through sex?

The odds of transmitting coronavirus through sex hasn’t been thoroughly studied, though it has been found to exist in men’s semen.

But we do know Covid-19 is a highly contagious respiratory illness that can spread via saliva, coughs, sneezes, talking or breathing — with or without symptoms of illness.

So three Harvard physicians examined the likelihood of getting or giving Covid-19 during sex and made several recommendations.

For partners who haven’t been isolating together, they should wear masks and avoid kissing, the authors write.

In addition to wearing masks, people who have sex with partners outside of their home should also shower before and after; avoid sex acts that involve the oral transmission of bodily fluids; clean up the area afterward with soap or alcohol wipes to reduce their likelihood of infection.

Transmission treatment & prevention family myths & misinformation

Is it true young people with coronavirus are also having blood clots and strokes?

Yes, some young adults have suffered strokes after getting coronavirus.

“The virus seems to be causing increased clotting in the large arteries, leading to severe stroke,” said Dr. Thomas Oxley, a neurosurgeon at Mount Sinai Health System in New York.

“Most of these patients have no past medical history and were at home with either mild symptoms (or in two cases, no symptoms) of Covid.”

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Why has the guidance on wearing face masks changed so much?

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How can I stay safe in an elevator?

Doctors say getting vaccinated is the best way to prevent coronavirus infection.

If you’re not vaccinated, it’s best to take the stairs if you can. But if you can’t, emergency room physician Dr. Leana Wen offers several tips:

  • Wear a mask. Not only does wearing a mask reduce your risk of inhaling the virus — which can linger in the air for 8 minutes — it also helps reduce your chances of infecting others if you are an asymptomatic carrier.
  • Use a tissue to push the elevator buttons. If you don’t have a tissue, use your elbow, then wash or disinfect that area when you can.
  • Try to keep your distance from anyone else inside the elevator as much as possible.

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How safe are public restrooms?

For those not fully vaccinated, try to avoid public restrooms if you can, said microbiologist Ali Nouri, president of the Federation of American Scientists. But he acknowledged that’s not always possible: “Sometimes when you gotta go, you gotta go.”

Close contact with others is the most significant risk in a public restroom, Nouri said. So if there’s a single-person bathroom available that doesn’t have multiple stalls, using that might be best.

If you do use a multi-stall public restroom, Nouri offers the following tips:

  • Don’t use your freshly washed hands to turn off the water with the germ-laden faucet handle. Instead, use a paper towel to turn off the water and open the bathroom door. Throw away the paper towel immediately afterward.
  • Wear a face mask. “Masks are one of the most effective ways to stop human-to-human transmission,” Nouri said. “If people in a public bathroom are not wearing masks, think twice before going in.”
  • If the restroom looks crowded, wait until it clears out, if you can. “You’re reducing the risk of inhaling aerosolized particles from other people,” Nouri said.

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Is hand sanitizer as effective as soap and water in killing coronavirus?

Yes — as long as you use the right kind of sanitizer and use it correctly.

Hand sanitizers “need to have at least 60% alcohol in them,” said Dr. William Schaffner, professor of preventative medicine and infectious disease at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine.

And don’t just put a little dollop in your hand and smear it around quickly.

“You’ve got to use enough and get it all over the surfaces,” Schaffner said. “Rub it all over your hands, between your fingers and on the back of your hands.”

But it’s always better to thoroughly wash your hands, if you’re able to.

“Alcohol is pretty effective at killing germs, but it doesn’t wash away stuff,” said Dr. John Williams, a virologist at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh.

“If somebody’s just sneezed into their hand, and their hand is covered with mucus, they would have to use a lot more alcohol to inactivate that bacteria or virus.”

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Are some blood types able to fight coronavirus better than other blood types?

A study published in The New England Journal of Medicine found that people with Type A blood have a higher risk of getting infected with coronavirus and developing severe symptoms, while people with Type O blood have a lower risk – but the study has caveats.

The researchers cannot say if blood type is a direct cause of the differences in susceptibility. It could be that genetic changes that affect someone’s risk also just happen to be linked with blood type, they said.

The study’s findings, while plausible, may mean very little for the average person, said Dr. Roy Silverstein, a hematologist and chairman of the department of medicine at the Medical College of Wisconsin.

“The absolute difference in risk is very small,” he said. “The risk reduction may be statistically significant, but it is a small change in actual risk. You never would tell somebody who was Type O that they were at smaller risk of infection.”

The bottom line: “All of us are susceptible to this virus,” said Dr. Maria Van Kerkhove, technical lead for the World Health Organization’s Covid-19 response.

Treatment & prevention myths & misinformation

What’s the risk of having a maid service come to clean your house if you’re not home?

“It’s probably safe if you’re not at home,” said Dr. Leana Wen, an emergency room physician. She suggested leaving the windows open to improve ventilation and asking the cleaners to use your own cleaning supplies so they don’t bring items that have been in other people’s houses.

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Can I disinfect my mask by putting it in the microwave?

That’s “not a great idea,” said Dr. Joseph Vinetz, a professor of infectious diseases at Yale School of Medicine. “We have no evidence about that.”

“If there’s a metal piece in an N95 or surgical mask and even staples, you can’t microwave them,” he said. “It’ll blow up.”

Vinetz said cloth masks can be washed and reused, and even disposable masks can be reused if you let them sit for several days.

To disinfect masks that you can’t wash, Vinetz recommends leaving them in a clean, safe place in your home for a few days. After that, it should no longer be infectious, as this coronavirus is known to survive on hard surfaces for only up to three days.

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Is it safe to perform CPR on a stranger?

Doctors strongly recommend performing CPR when someone needs it.

You could be hundreds of times more likely to save that dying person’s life than you are to die from Covid-19 if you contract it after performing CPR, according to a report published by a group of Seattle emergency room physicians in the journal Circulation.

But it’s important to act quickly for CPR to be effective.

“The chance of survival goes down by 10% for every minute without CPR,” said Dr. Comilla Sasson, vice president for science and innovation in emergency cardiovascular care at the American Heart Association. “It’s a 10-minute window to death in many cases.”

If you’re not certified in CPR, performing chest compressions could also buy more time until help arrives. Bystanders should “provide high-quality chest compressions by pushing hard and fast in the middle of the victim’s chest, with minimal interruptions,” the American Heart Association said.

If you’re not sure how “fast” to do to those chest compressions, singing any of these popular songs will help you get the right rhythm.

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Can I get coronavirus from swimming in open water, like in a lake or seawater? What about in a public pool or hot tub?

It’s not the water you need to worry about. It’s how close you might get to other people.

“Properly maintained pool water will not be a source of spread of the virus. The chlorine that’s in it will inactivate the virus fairly quickly,” immunologist Erin Bromage said.

“The level of dilution that would happen in a pool or an ocean or a large freshwater body would not lead to enough virus to establish an infection. But when you do this, you need to just make sure that we’re maintaining an appropriate physical distance while swimming or sitting in a hot tub.”

That’s because it’s easy for infected people with no symptoms to spread the virus if they’re within 6 feet from each other. If you have an indoor pool or hot tub, even 6 feet might not be enough distance.

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I saw other countries spraying down sidewalks and other public places with disinfectant. Why haven’t we done that in the US?

Randomly spraying open places is largely a waste of time, health experts say.

It can actually do more harm than good. “Spraying disinfectants can result in risks to the eyes, respiratory or skin irritation,” the World Health Organization said.

“Spraying or fumigation of outdoor spaces, such as streets or marketplaces, is also not recommended to kill the COVID-19 virus or other pathogens because disinfectant is inactivated by dirt and debris, and it is not feasible to manually clean and remove all organic matter from such spaces,” the WHO said.

“Moreover, spraying porous surfaces, such as sidewalks and unpaved walkways, would be even less effective.” Besides, the ground isn’t typically a source of infection, the WHO said.

And once the disinfectant wears off, an infected person could easily contaminate the surface again.

Treatment & prevention myths & misinformation travel transmission

Will protests increase the spread of Covid-19?

Any large gathering can increase the spread because this coronavirus is transmissible by talking or even just breathing. Carriers of the virus can be contagious even if they don’t have symptoms.

And when people are “shouting and cheering loudly, that does produce a lot of droplets and aerosolization that can spread the virus to people,” said Dr. James Phillips, a physician and assistant professor at George Washington University Hospital.

So doctors and officials say its important to get vaccinated or wear a face mask and try to keep your distance from others as much as possible.

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Do vitamin D levels affect your risk for coronavirus? Is there a correlation between vitamin D and those who test positive for Covid-19?

“To date, there is no evidence that very high vitamin D levels are protective against COVID-19 and consequently medical guidance is that people should not be supplementing their vitamin D levels beyond those which are currently recommended by published medical advice,” wrote Robin May, director of the Institute of Microbiology and Infection at the University of Birmingham in the UK.

Vitamin D is important for healthy muscles, strong bones and a powerful immune system. The recommended daily dose of vitamin D for anyone over age 1 is 15 mcg/600 IU per day in the US. For anyone over 70 years of age in the US, the recommended daily intake goes up to 20 mcg/800 IU per day.

But too much vitamin D can lead to a toxic buildup of calcium in your blood that can cause confusion, disorientation, heart rhythm problems, bone pain, kidney damage and painful kidney stones.

Treatment & prevention myths & misinformation

Can you get coronavirus from touching money? What about from other objects, like plants?

“Viruses can live on surfaces and objects — including on money — although your chance of actually getting COVID-19 from cash is probably very low,” emergency medicine physician Dr. Leana Wen said.

The new coronavirus can live for up to 72 hours on stainless steel and plastic, up to 24 hours after landing on cardboard, and up to four hours after landing on copper, according to a study funded by the US National Institutes of Health.

So how do you protect yourself? To avoid touching cash or coins, use contactless methods of payment whenever possible, Wen said.

If you can’t use a contactless form of payment, credit cards and debit cards are much easier to clean and disinfect than cash. But remember that anyone who touches your credit card can also leave germs on it.

If you must use cash, “wash your hands well with soap and water” afterward, Wen said.

The same applies for anything else you touch that might have coronavirus on it. If you can’t wash your hands immediately, use hand sanitzier or disinfectant.

And since Covid-19 is a respiratory disease, make sure you avoid touching your face.

Transmission work/life treatment & prevention

Can you get coronavirus by touching a dead body or the ashes of someone who had Covid-19?

It appears unlikely, but the CDC advises taking precautions.

Experts believe coronavirus is mainly spread during close contact (about 6 feet) with a person who is currently infected, the CDC said.

“This type of spread is not a concern after death,” the CDC said. But it cautions that “we are still learning how it spreads.”

“There may be less of a chance of the virus spreading from certain types of touching, such as holding the hand or hugging after the body has been prepared for viewing,” the CDC said.

“Other activities, such as kissing, washing, and shrouding should be avoided before, during, and after the body has been prepared, if possible.”

If washing the body or shrouding are important religious or cultural practices, “families are encouraged to work with their community’s cultural and religious leaders and funeral home staff on how to reduce their exposure as much as possible,” the CDC said.

“At a minimum, people conducting these activities should wear disposable gloves. If splashing of fluids is expected, additional personal protective equipment (PPE) may be required (such as disposable gown, faceshield or goggles and N-95 respirator).”

Cremated remains can be considered sterile, as infectious agents do not survive incineration-range temperatures, the CDC said.

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Can UV light kill coronavirus?

While some UV light devices are used for hospital disinfection, UV light only kills germs under very specific conditions — including certain irradiation dosages and exposure times, the World Health Organization said.

But UV light can also damage the body.

Two factors are required for UV light to destroy a virus: intensity and time. If the light is intense enough to break apart a virus in a short time, it’s going to be dangerous to people, said Donald Milton, a professor at the University of Maryland.

UVA and UVB light both damage the skin. UVC light is safer for skin, but it will damage tender tissue such as the eyes.

Myths & misinformation treatment & prevention

Do I need to wash fruits and vegetables with soap and water?

No. The US Food and Drug Administration says you don’t need to wash fresh produce with soap and water, but you should rinse it with plain water.

But it’s still important to wash your hands with soap and water frequently because we often touch our faces without realizing it. And that’s a way coronavirus can spread.

You don’t have to worry about getting coronavirus by “eating” it, though. Even if coronavirus does get into your food, your stomach acid would kill it, said Dr. Angela Rasmussen, a virologist at Columbia University.

Treatment & prevention work/life transmission

Can coronavirus stay in my hair or in a beard? Should I wash my hair every day?

Coronavirus can stick to hair, said Dr. David Aronoff, director of the Division of Infectious Diseases at Vanderbilt University Medical Center.

Touching contaminated hair and then touching your mouth, eyes or nose could increase your risk of infection. “Like on the skin, this coronavirus is a transient hitchhiker that can be removed by washing,” Aronoff said.

But that doesn’t mean you have to wash the hair on your head multiple times a day, said dermatologist Dr. Hadley King.

That’s because “living hair attached to our scalps may be better protected by our natural oils that have some antimicrobial properties and may limit how well microbes can attach to the hair,” she said.

“If you are going out into areas that could possibly be contaminated with viral particles, then it would be reasonable to wash the hair daily during the pandemic. But it’s not the same as hand washing – the virus infects us through our mucosal surfaces. If your hair is not falling into your face or you’re not running your fingers through it, then there is less of a risk.”

If your hair does fall into your face, you may want to pull it back to minimize your risk, King said.

As for facial hair, “washing at least daily if not more frequently is wise, depending on how often they touch their face,” Aronoff said.

Transmission treatment & prevention work/life

Could I infect my pets with coronavirus, or vice versa? Can someone get infected by touching an animal’s fur? Should I get my pet tested for coronavirus?

There have been some reports of animals infected with coronavirus — including two pets in New York and eight big cats at the Bronx Zoo.

Most of those infections came from contact with humans who had coronavirus, like a zoo employee who was an asymptomatic carrier.

But according to the CDC, there is no evidence animals play a significant role in spreading the virus to humans. Therefore, at this time, routine testing of animals for Covid-19 is not recommended.

As always, it’s best to wash your hands after touching an animal’s fur and before touching your face. And if your pet appears to be sick, call your veterinarian.

Family work/life treatment & prevention transmission

Should I wash my hands and laundry in very warm or hot water?

Hot water is best for killing bacteria and viruses in your laundry. But you don’t want to use that kind of scalding hot water on your skin.

Warm water is perfectly fine for washing your hands — as long as you wash them thoroughly (like this) and for at least 20 seconds. (To time yourself, you can hum the “Happy Birthday” song twice or sing a couple of verses from any of these hit songs from the past several decades.)

Cold water will also work, “but you have to make sure you work really vigorously to get a lather and get everything soapy and bubbly,” said chemist Bill Wuest, an associate professor at Emory University. To do that, you might need to sing “Happy Birthday” three times instead of twice.

“Warm water with soap gets a much better lather – more bubbles,” Wuest said. “It’s an indication that the soap is … trying to encapsulate the dirt and the bacteria and the viruses in them.”

Treatment & prevention work/life transmission myths & misinformation

How does soap kill coronavirus? If I don’t have disinfecting wipes, can I use soap and water on surfaces?

Yes, you can use soap and water on surfaces just like you would on your hands to kill coronavirus. But don’t use water alone — that won’t really help.

The outer layer of the virus is made up of lipids, aka fat. Your goal is to break through that fatty barrier, forcing the virus’ guts to spill out and rendering it dead.

In other words, imagine coronavirus is a butter dish that you’re trying to clean.

“You try to wash your butter dish with water alone, but that butter is not coming off the dish,” said Dr. John Williams, chief of pediatric infectious diseases at UPMC Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh.

“You need some soap to dissolve grease. So soap or alcohol are very, very effective against dissolving that greasy liquid coating of the virus.”

By cutting through the greasy barrier, Williams said, “it physically inactivates the virus so it can’t bind to and enter human cells anymore.”

Work/life transmission treatment & prevention schools/education

Can coronavirus be transferred by people’s shoes? How do I protect kids who crawl or play on the floor?

Yes, coronavirus can live on the soles of shoes, but the risk of getting Covid-19 from shoes appears to be low.

A report published by the CDC highlighted a study from a hospital in Wuhan, China, where this coronavirus outbreak began.

The soles of medical workers’ shoes were swabbed and analyzed, and the study found that the virus was “widely distributed” on floors, computer mice, trash cans and door knobs. But it’s important to note the study was done in a hospital, where the virus was concentrated.

It’s still possible to pick up coronavirus on the bottoms of your shoes by running errands, but it’s unlikely you’ll get sick from it because people don’t often touch the soles of their shoes and then their faces. Because Covid-19 is a respiratory disease, the CDC advises wearing a mask while in public and washing your hands frequently– the correct way.

If you have small children who crawl or regularly touch the floor, it’s a good idea to take your shoes off as soon you get home to prevent coronavirus or bacteria from spreading on the floors.

transmission family treatment & prevention schools/education

Can I get coronavirus through food? Is it safe to eat takeout from restaurants?

There’s no evidence that coronavirus can be transmitted through food, the CDC says.

Even if coronavirus does get into your food, your stomach acid would kill it, said Dr. Angela Rasmussen, a virologist at Columbia University.

“When you eat any kind of food, whether it be hot or cold, that food is going to go straight down into your stomach, where there’s a high acidity, low-pH environment that will inactivate the virus,” she said.

But it’s a good idea to disinfect the takeout containers, CNN Chief Medical Correspondent Dr. Sanjay Gupta said. Coronavirus is a respiratory virus, and it’s easy to touch your face without realizing it.

If you don’t have disinfecting wipes, use your own plates or bowls to serve the food. Just make sure to wash your hands after transferring food from the containers.

transmission family work/life

Can coronavirus spread through water, like in a swimming pool or hot tub?

“There is no evidence that COVID-19 can be spread to humans through the use of pools and hot tubs,” the CDC says.

“Proper operation, maintenance, and disinfection (e.g., with chlorine and bromine) of pools and hot tubs should remove or inactivate the virus that causes COVID-19.”

But health officials still advise staying at least 6 feet away from others because COVID-19 is a respiratory disease. In other words, you probably won’t get coronavirus from the water, but you could get coronavirus from someone close to you in the water.

As for drinking water, doctors say you don’t need to worry about coronavirus in the tap water because most municipal drinking water systems should remove or inactivate the virus.

Transmission work/life

Can mosquitoes or houseflies transmit coronavirus?

“To date there has been no information nor evidence to suggest that the new coronavirus could be transmitted by mosquitoes,” the World Health Organization says. There’s also no evidence so far suggesting flies can spread coronavirus.

Transmission myths & misinformation

Can you safely reuse a non-cloth mask that you can’t wash, like a disposable mask?

Work/life treatment & prevention

Will ingesting or injecting disinfectants, like the ones that kill viruses on surfaces, protect me against coronavirus or kill coronavirus if I already have it?

Myths & misinformation treatment & prevention work/life

What can we learn from how other countries handled coronavirus?

Singapore was initially praised for its clampdown on the virus. Even people who had no symptoms but tested positive had to be hospitalized until they tested negative.

But Singapore was also relaxed, allowing businesses, churches, restaurants and schools to stay open during its first wave of the virus. And some communities were overlooked by government testing.

The number of cases in Singapore shot up, and the country suffered a strong second wave of coronavirus.

By contrast, Germany, South Korea, Iceland and Taiwan have had among the lowest death rates from Covid-19 in the world.

Taiwan was proactive, launching its Central Epidemic Command Center before the island even confirmed its first infection.

Iceland required all its citizens returning to the country to undergo 14 days of quarantine – regardless of which country they traveled from.

Germany and South Korea quickly launched widespread testing and have some of the highest per-capita testing rates in the world. Their ability to identify and isolate those infected has helped prevent deadlier outcomes.

Work/life treatment & prevention

Can coronavirus stick to clothes? Do I need to wash my clothes right after encountering other people, like at the grocery store or while jogging?

“I don’t think you need to,” CNN Chief Medical Correspondent Dr. Sanjay Gupta said.

Coronavirus can stay alive for up to three days on stainless steel and plastic. But clothing “is probably more like cardboard — it’s more absorbent, so the virus is unlikely to stay and last that long,” Gupta said.

While coronavirus can stay alive on cardboard for up to 24 hours, viruses generally don’t stick well on surfaces that are in motion.

“If you look at how viruses move through air, they kind of want to move around objects,” Gupta said. “They don’t want to necessarily land on objects. So if you’re moving as human body through the air … (it’s) unlikely to stick to your clothes.”

Transmission work/life family treatment & prevention

Will an antibody test show whether I’m immune and can go back to work or school?

Work/life treatment & prevention transmission schools/education

Can I use vodka as hand sanitizer?

Please don’t. The CDC advises using hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol.

Vodka typically contains between 35% and 46% percent alcohol.

If the stores are out of hand sanitizer and you want to make your own, the Nebraska Medical Center offers this recipe:

What you’ll need:

  • 2/3 cup 91% isopropyl alcohol (rubbing alcohol)
  • 1/3 cup aloe vera gel
  • Mixing bowl
  • Spoon or something for whisking
  • Small container, such as a 3-oz. travel bottle
  • Optional: essential oil to give your hand sanitizer a fragrance

Directions:
In a mixing bowl, stir isopropyl alcohol and aloe vera gel together until well blended.
Add 8-10 drops of scented essential oil (optional, but nice). Stir.
Pour the homemade hand sanitizer into an empty container and seal. Write “hand sanitizer” on a piece of masking tape and attach to the bottle.

Myths & misinformation treatment & prevention

Are smokers or vapers at higher risk? What if I only smoke weed?

This is not a good time to be vaping or smoking anything, including weed.

“Vaping affects your lungs at every level. It affects the immune function in your nasal cavity by affecting cilia, which push foreign things out,” said Prof. Stanton Glantz, director of the Center for Tobacco Research Control and Education at University of California San Francisco.

When you vape, “the ability of your upper airways to clear viruses is compromised,” Glantz said.

Tobacco smokers are at especially high risk. In a study from China, where the first Covid-19 outbreak occurred, smokers were 14 times more likely to develop severe complications than non-smokers.

Even occasionally smoking marijuana can put you at greater risk.

“What happens to your airways when you smoke cannabis is that it causes some degree of inflammation, very similar to bronchitis, very similar to the type of inflammation that cigarette smoking can cause,” said pulmonologist Dr. Albert Rizzo, chief medical officer for the American Lung Association.

“Now you have some airway inflammation, and you get an infection on top of it. So yes, your chance of getting more complications is there.”

Work/life family treatment & prevention

My teenagers aren’t taking this seriously. Any advice?

Coronavirus isn’t just infecting young people. It’s killing young, healthy people as well.

We’ve reported many stories about young people getting severely sick with or dying from coronavirus.

Dimitri Mitchell, 18, admits he had a “false sense of security.” But he was later hospitalized with coronavirus and now wants everyone to take it seriously.

“I just want to make sure everybody knows that no matter what their age is, it can seriously affect them. And it can seriously mess them up, like it messed me up,” the Iowa teen said.

“Four days in, the really bad symptoms started coming along. I started having really bad outbreaks, like sweating, and my eyes were really watery. I was getting warmer and warmer, and I was super fatigued. … I would start experiencing the worst headaches I’ve ever felt in my life. They were absolutely horrible.”

Eventually, the teen had to be hospitalized. His mother said she worried he might “fall asleep and never wake up.”

Mitchell is now recovering, but has suffered from long-term effects.

“I just hope everybody’s responsible, because it’s nothing to joke about,” he said. “It’s a real problem, and I want everybody to make sure they’re following social distancing guidelines and the group limits. And just listen to all the rules and precautions and stay up to date with the news and make sure they’re informed.”

Family transmission treatment & prevention myths & misinformation schools/education

Does this pandemic have anything to do with the 5G network?

No. That’s just a hoax going around the internet.

“The theory that 5G might compromise the immune system and thus enable people to get sick from corona is based on nothing,” said Eric van Rongen, chairman of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP).

Learn more about how 5G really works and why this hoax makes no sense.

Myths & misinformation

My ex and I have joint custody of our kids. Is it safe for them to go between two homes?

Ideally, you should limit your children’s potential exposures to coronavirus and work out the safest plan possible with your ex.

The problem: Some state and county family courts might be closed, or open only for emergencies involving abuse or endangerment. So it might be difficult to formally modify pre-existing custody agreements.

But some states may be offering some flexibility during the pandemic. And there may be creative solutions, such as spending more time with one parent now in exchange for extra time with the other parent after the pandemic ends.

Family work/life travel

How long does coronavirus stay “alive” on surfaces?

Up to three days, depending on the surface. According to a study funded by the US National Institutes of Health:

  • The novel coronavirus is viable up to 72 hours after being placed on stainless steel and plastic.
  • It was viable up to four hours after being placed on copper, and up to 24 hours after being put on cardboard.
  • In aerosols, it was viable for three hours.

Transmission

Will a pneumonia or flu vaccine help protect against coronavirus?

Some cases of coronavirus do lead to pneumonia. But the pneumonia vaccine won’t help.

“Vaccines against pneumonia, such as pneumococcal vaccine and Haemophilus influenza type B (Hib) vaccine, only help protect people from these specific bacterial infections,” according to Harvard Medical School.

“They do not protect against any coronavirus pneumonia.”

Transmission myths & misinformation treatment & prevention vaccine

Should I wear a face mask in public? If so, how do I make one?

For unvaccinated people, the CDC “recommends wearing cloth face coverings in public settings where other social distancing measures are difficult to maintain (e.g., grocery stores and pharmacies).”

There are several key points:

transmission work/life myths & misinformation

Why is it so difficult to make a drug to cure coronavirus?

An antiviral drug must be able to target the specific part of a virus’ life cycle that is necessary for it to reproduce, according to Harvard Medical School.

“In addition, an antiviral drug must be able to kill a virus without killing the human cell it occupies. And viruses are highly adaptive.”

Treatment & Prevention

Why have medical workers gotten sick with or died from coronavirus if they’re wearing protective gear? Does the viral load matter?

Many health care workers havent had enough protective gear to handle the growing influx of coronavirus patients.

Some have resorted to using plastic report covers as masks. The CDC said medical providers might have to use expired masks or reuse them between multiple patients.

But it’s not just subpar protective gear that puts medical workers at risk. It’s also the amount of virus they’re exposed to.

“The viral load — the amount of virus – does determine the severity of your illness,” emergency medicine physician Dr. Leana Wen said. “So that could happen in the case of health care workers who are exposed to a lot more Covid-19 as a result of their work — that they get more severely ill.”

Transmission

How many people with coronavirus don’t have symptoms? Are they still contagious?

In one study, about 4 in 5 people with confirmed coronavirus in China were likely infected by people who didn’t know they had it, according to research published in the journal “Science.”

“These findings explain the rapid geographic spread of (coronavirus) and indicate containment of this virus will be particularly challenging,” researchers wrote.

In March 2020, the CDC said almost half of the 712 people with coronavirus who were on the Diamond Princess cruise ship didn’t have any symptoms when they tested positive.

Other studies suggest 25% to 50% of coronavirus carriers don’t have symptoms.

In the US, “I think it could be as many as 1 in 3 walking around asymptomatic,” said New Jersey primary care physician Dr. Alex Salerno.

“We have tested some patients that have known exposure to COVID (coronavirus disease). They did not have temperature. Their pulse/(oxygen) was OK.”

Salerno said more testing of people without symptoms is essential.

When asymptomatic carriers test positive, “we isolate them, and we separate them from the people who are not positive,” Salerno said. If more asymptomatic people got tested, “we could get people back to work safely.”

Transmission myths & misinformation work/life

If there’s no cure, why go to the hospital unless you have a breathing problem?

Most coronavirus patients don’t need to be hospitalized. “The vast majority of people – about 80% – will do well without any specific intervention,” said Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

Those patients should get plenty of rest, hydrate frequently and take fever-reducing medication.

“The current guidance – and this may change – is that if you have symptoms that are similar to the cold and the flu and these are mild symptoms to moderate symptoms, stay at home and try to manage them,” said Dr. Patrice Harris, president of the American Medical Association.

But about 20% of coronavirus patients get advanced disease. “Older patients and individuals who have underlying medical conditions or are immunocompromised should contact their physician early in the course of even mild illness,” the CDC says.

The CDC also says you should get immediate help if you have:

  • Trouble breathing
  • Persistent pain or pressure in the chest
  • Sudden confusion
  • Bluish lips or face

“This list is not all inclusive,” the CDC says. “Please consult your medical provider for any other symptoms that are severe or concerning.”

Treatment & prevention family

Why are people stocking up on bottled water? Is the water supply at risk?

No, the water supply is not at risk.

“The COVID-19 virus has not been detected in drinking water,” the CDC says. “Conventional water treatment methods that use filtration and disinfection, such as those in most municipal drinking water systems, should remove or inactivate the virus that causes COVID-19.”

So there’s no need to hoard drinking water, said Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Fauci said he and his wife are still drinking tap water.

Work/life myths & misinformation

How do I safely take care of someone who’s sick?

It may be difficult to know whether your loved one has coronavirus or another illness.
So it’s critical to play it safe and not infect yourself and, in turn, others. The CDC suggests:

  • Giving the sick person their own room to stay in, if possible. Keep the door closed.
  • Having only one person serve as the caretaker.
  • Asking the sick person to wear a face mask, if they are able to. If the mask causes breathing difficulties, then the caretaker should wear a mask instead.

Transmission family

What are the symptoms?

Fatigue, fever, dry cough, difficulty breathing and the loss of taste or smell are some of the symptoms of Covid-19.

Symptoms can appear anywhere from 2 days to 2 weeks after exposure, the CDC says. But some people get no symptoms at all and can infect others without knowing it.

The illness varies in its severity. And while many people can recover at home just fine, some people — including young, previously healthy adults — are suffering long-term symptoms.

transmission

What can I do if my loved one thinks he or she has coronavirus?

Don’t visit family members with suspected illness – connect with them virtually.
If that person lives with you, limit contact with them and avoid using the same bathroom or bedroom if possible, the CDC advises.

If the person been diagnosed, he or she might be able to recover at home in isolation. Separate yourself as much as possible from your infected family member and keep animals away, too. Continue to use separate restrooms and regularly disinfect them.

Stock up on groceries and household supplies for them while they can’t travel outside and minimize trips to stores. Wash your hands frequently and avoid sharing personal items with the infected person.

If you think you’re developing symptoms, stay home and call your physician.

family

The stores are all out of disinfectant sprays and hand sanitizer. Can I make my own?

Yes, you can make both at home.

“Unexpired household bleach will be effective against coronaviruses when properly diluted” if you’re trying to kill coronavirus on a non-porous surface, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said.

The CDC’s recipe calls for diluting 5 tablespoons (or ⅓ cup) of bleach per gallon of water, or 4 teaspoons of bleach per quart of water.

You can also make your own hand sanitizer. The Nebraska Medical Center – famous for its biocontainment unit and treatment of Ebola patients – offers this recipe:

What you’ll need:

  • 2/3 cup 91% isopropyl alcohol (rubbing alcohol)
  • 1/3 cup aloe vera gel
  • Mixing bowl
  • Spoon or something for whisking
  • Small container, such as a 3 oz. travel bottle
  • Optional: essential oil to give your hand sanitizer a fragrance

Directions:
In a mixing bowl, stir isopropyl alcohol and aloe vera gel together until well blended.
Add 8-10 drops of scented essential oil (optional, but nice). Stir.
Pour the homemade hand sanitizer into an empty container and seal.
Write “hand sanitizer” on a piece of masking tape and attach to the bottle.

Work/life Treatment & Prevention

Can I be fired if I stay home sick?

An employee can be fired if they don’t show up to work and don’t have sick leave that would cover the absence, says Krista Slosburg, an employment attorney at Stokes Lawrence in Seattle.

But there are exceptions. Employers who make workers with Covid-19 come in may be violating Occupational Safety and Health Administration [OSHA] regulations, said Donna Ballman, who heads an employee advocacy law firm in Florida.

Work/Life

What happens when workers don’t get paid sick leave?

If you work in a city or state that requires sick leave and you use it, you can‘t be terminated or disciplined.

But there is no federal mandate that requires companies to offer paid sick leave, and almost a quarter of all US workers don’t get it, according to 2019 government data. Some state and local governments have passed laws that require companies to offer paid sick leave.

The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) can sometimes protect a worker’s job in the event they get sick, but it won’t guarantee they get paid while they’re out.

Employee advocates urge businesses to consider the special circumstances of the Covid-19, and some already have

Work/Life

Can managers send a sick worker home?

Yes, managers can.

The Society for Human Resource Management recommends companies “actively encourage sick employees to stay home, send symptomatic employees home until they are able to return to work safely, and require employees returning from high-risk areas to telework during the incubation period (of 14 days).”

If a manager feels an employee’s illness poses a direct threat to colleagues’ safety, the manager may be able to insist the employee be evaluated by a doctor, said Alka Ramchandani-Raj, an attorney specializing in workplace safety.

Work/Life

If traveling on a plane, how do I stay safe?

Since Covid-19 is a respiratory disease, some airlines are now requiring passengers to wear face masks during the flight, except for while eating or drinking.

Health experts suggest eating, drinking and using the restroom before getting on the plane, to eliminate the need to take off your mask or go into a cramped lavatory on board.

And always be mindful of where your hands have been, travel medicine specialist Dr. Richard Dawood said.

Airport handrails, door handles and airplane lavatory levers are notoriously dirty.

“It is OK to touch these things as long as you then wash or sanitize your hands before contaminating your face, touching or handling food,” Dawood said.

“Hand sanitizers are great. So are antiseptic hand wipes, which you can also use to wipe down armrests, remote controls at your seat and your tray table.”

Travel family work/life

What do I do if I think I’m sick?

Stay home. Call your doctor to talk about your symptoms and let them know you’re coming for an appointment so they can prepare for your visit, the CDC says.

Only a Covid-19 test can diagnose you with coronavirus, but if you suspect you have it, isolate yourself at home.

Many patients with coronavirus are able to recover at home. If you’ve been diagnosed and your illness is worsening, seek medical attention promptly. You may need to be monitored in a hospital.

Treatment & Prevention

Should I spray myself or my kids with disinfectant?

No. Those products work on surfaces but can be dangerous to your body.

There are some chemical disinfectants, including bleach, 75% ethanol, peracetic acid and chloroform, that may kill the virus on surfaces.

But if the virus is already in your body, putting those substances on your skin or under your nose won’t kill it, the World Health Organization says. And those chemicals can harm you.

Treatment & Prevention myths & misinformation

I’ve heard that home remedies can cure or prevent the virus. Is that true?

There’s no evidence from the outbreak that eating garlic, sipping water every 15 minutes or taking vitamin C will protect people from the new coronavirus. Same goes for using essential oils or colloidal silver.

Treatment & prevention myths & misinformation

Why waste a test kit on a person without symptoms?

Some people with coronavirus have mild or no symptoms. And in some cases, symptoms don’t appear until up to 14 days after infection.

During that incubation period, it’s possible to get coronavirus from someone with no symptoms. It’s also possible you may have coronavirus without feeling sick and are accidentally infecting others.

Treatment & Prevention

Why was the US been so far behind other countries with testing?

Experts said cuts in federal funding for public health and problems with early testing forced the US to play catch-up.

Problems with public health infrastructure: Two years ago, the CDC stopped funding epidemic prevention activities in 39 countries, including China. This happened because the Trump administration refused to allocate money to a program that started during the 2014 Ebola outbreak.

Former CDC director Dr. Tom Frieden warned that move “would significantly increase the chance an epidemic will spread without our knowledge and endanger lives in our country and around the world.”

Problems with the testing: Malfunctions, shortages and delays in availability have all contributed to the slowdown.

In the first few weeks of the outbreak in the US, the CDC was the only facility in the country that could confirm test results — even though a World Health Organization test became available around the same time.

Some test kits that were sent around the country were flawed — a move that put the US behind about “four to five weeks,” says Dr. Rob Davidson, executive director of the Committee to Protect Medicare.

Treatment & Prevention

If a coronavirus patient gets pneumonia, what antibiotics have proven to be effective?

No antibiotics are effective against Covid-19 because the disease is caused by a viral infection, not a bacterial infection.

“However, if you are hospitalized for the [coronavirus], you may receive antibiotics because bacterial co-infection is possible,” the World Health Organization says.

There is no known cure for the novel coronavirus.

Treatment & Prevention

Did Dean Koontz predict this outbreak in the book “The Eyes of Darkness” almost 40 years ago?

No. There are some interesting coincidences in the 1981 fiction novel, which says “a severe pneumonia-like illness will spread around the globe” around the year 2020. Modern editions of the book call the biological strain “Wuhan-400,” and the current coronavirus outbreak started in Wuhan, China.

But there are important differences between the book and reality. The original version of the book called the strain the “Gorki-400,” in reference to a Russian locality, before it was later changed to the “Wuhan-400.” In the book, the virus was man-made, while scientists believe the novel coronavirus started in animals and jumped to humans. And in the book, the virus had a 100% mortality rate. Early estimates of the mortality rate for this coronavirus outbreak range from 2-4%.

myths & misinformation

Can the heat from a hand dryer kill coronavirus?

Hand dryers can’t kill the virus, according to WHO. The organization also says that UV lamps shouldn’t be used to sterilize hands or other areas of the body because the radiation can irritate skin.

Drinking hot water or taking hot baths won’t kill it, either.

Myths & misinformation

Can I get coronavirus from a package sent from China?

No. “The new coronavirus cannot be transmitted through goods manufactured in China or any country reporting Covid-19 cases,” the World Health Organization says.

“Even though the new coronavirus can stay on surfaces for a few hours or up to several days (depending on the type of surface), it is very unlikely that the virus will persist on a surface after being moved, travelled, and exposed to different conditions and temperatures,” WHO said.

Myths & misinformation transmission

Author:
Read more here >>> CNN.com – RSS Channel – HP Hero

Lambda variant: New strain of Covid could could be more lethal than Delta – professor

The Delta variant, which first appeared in India, has been spreading rampantly through much of the world. Developing and rich countries alike have not escaped its wrath, although vaccination rates remain pitifully low in much of the former, raising fears of overwhelmed healthcare systems. While this is all happening, a new variant has been spreading like wildfire.

As the MailOnline reports, the new strain has creeped into Australia, which has historically kept coronavirus out of its shores through stringent border controls.

However, the country has low vaccination rates, making it uniquely vulnerable to new variants.

The Lambda strain is on the World Health Organization’s radar. It has so far been spotted in at least 30 countries already, including Britain.

It is thought to have hatched in Peru, accounting for almost 81 percent of the country’s caseload since April.

Doctors in the South American nation fear is more transmissible than any other variants, based on how quickly it has spread in the country over the past four months.

Professor Pablo Tsukayama, Cayetano Heredia University, said the strain has “exploded” in Peru, with the new variant responsible for 82 percent of current cases.

He told the Financial Times that it made up just one in every 200 samples back in December, when it was first detected.

“That would suggest its rate of transmission is higher than any other variant,” Professor Tsukayama said.

The strain, also known to scientists as C.37, was marked as a “variant of interest” by the WHO last month because of its high transmissibility.

However, the jury is currently out on whether it will overtake the Delta variant.

Coronavirus-tracking researchers have yet to establish the virus is any more transmissible than existing strains.

Nonetheless, the variant’s rapid spread is concerning, particularly in regions with low vaccination rates.

The Lambda variant was detected in a traveller undergoing hotel quarantine in New South Wales in April, according to the national genomics database AusTrakka.

While there is no evidence to suggest the strain has started to spread among the community in Australia, the development raises concerns because the country lags behind others in terms of vaccination rates.

The latest figures suggest around 7.4 percent of the population have been vaccinated, amounting to 1.88 million.

In contrast, Britain has vaccinated over 50 percent of its population, with around 33.7 million people fully jabbed.

The vaccine rollout in Australia has been particularly challenging due to the way it has been logistically handled.

It has not been overseen from the Federal government and distributed out. Rather, the state and federal governments have divided the task between them.

Although there are no sigs the Lambda variant is spreading in Australia, other health experts have echoed fears about its potential.

Dr Jeffrey Barrett, head of Britain’s Covid-19 Genomics Initiative at the Welcome Sanger Institute, told the FT: “Lambda has a unique pattern of seven mutations in the spike protein that the virus uses to infect human cells.

“Researchers are particularly intrigued by one mutation called L452Q, which is similar to the L452R mutation to contribute to the high infectiousness of the Delta variant.”

The vaccine rollout is not uniform across Australia, as the state and federal governments have divided the task between them.

Author: Adam Chapman
Read more here >>> Daily Express :: Life and Style
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Covid map shows Delta variant RAPID rise – & it spread even quicker than Kent strain

The Delta variant previously known as the Indian variant is continuing to cause the number of Covid cases to rise. This variant has caused a huge surge in Covid cases in the UK. New charts show just how fast this variant has been spreading.

The majority of Covid infections in the UK today can be attributed to the Delta variant.

This strain now accounts for about 95 percent of new cases of Covid in Britain.

It appears to spread more easily than the Kent variant which is also known as the Alpa variant, with a chart showing just how rapid the rise was.

The Delta variant of the coronavirus is thought to be about 60 percent more transmissible than the Kent strain, according to research by Public Health England.

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“Sixty per cent more infectious is extremely worrying—that’s the main thing that will drive the speed with which the next wave comes along.

Professor Andrew Hayward, an adviser to the government’s Scientific Advisory Group for Emergencies told the BBC: “The fact that the level of hospitalisations from this infection appear to be maybe up to double those of the previous infection is of course also extremely concerning.”

Public Health England recorded 35,204 cases of the Delta variant in the UK reaching a total of 111,157 cases of this variant being recorded across the UK.

The number of cases of the Delta variant has risen by 46 percent in a week across the UK.

Just like the Alpha variant the Delta strain first emerged in concentrated areas but it has now begun to spread across the UK.

The first outbreak of the Alpha variant recorded in the UK was in Kent.

Until recently the Delta variant has been confined to the North but, hotspots of the variant are now being recorded throughout the UK.

The majority of cases of the Delta strain are being reported in England, where there’s been a total of 102,019 recorded cases.

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The government said the delay of four weeks would allow them to vaccinate more people to help combat the concerning spread of the Delta variant.

Boris Johnson said the variant is “now spreading faster than the third wave predicted in the February roadmap”.

He added: “We’re seeing cases growing by about 64 per cent per week, and in the worst affected areas, it’s doubling every week.”
Hopefully, the variant will be under control within four weeks and the final easing of restriction will go ahead as planned.

Mr Johnson said: ”As things stand, and on the evidence that I can see right now, I’m confident that we will not need more than four weeks.”

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This post originally appeared on Daily Express :: Health Feed
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Delta plus variant symptoms: 41 cases of new strain found in UK – symptoms to spot

“People get GI symptoms in their stomach, they get headache, they can get all kinds of different things.

“So if you’re worried, you know there’s a universal testing offer. People can be tested twice a week, for free, they can have those tests in their home, ready to go, and people should be doing that symptoms or not.

“And that would be my advice to get through whatever symptoms you have.”

India has said the Delta plus mutation appears to spread more easily, attaches more easily to lung cells and is potentially resistant to treatment.

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This post originally appeared on Daily Express :: Health Feed
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Indian variant: Under-21s 'more likely' to catch strain says Neil Ferguson

Professor Neil Ferguson, British epidemiologist at Imperial College London and member of the Scientific Advisory Group for Emergencies (SAGE), discussed the threat the Covid mutation poses to the UK’s roadmap out of lockdown.
Telling the reporters it is a “matter of degree” whether the variant derails an end to Covid restrictions, the SAGE member said there is data suggesting it could effect younger people more than previous strains.

He said: “There’s a hint in the data that under-21s are slightly more likely to be infected with this variant compared with other variants in recent weeks in the UK.

“Whether that reflects a change in the biology or reflects what’s called founder effects and the context – the people who came into the country with the virus and then seeding of infection in certain schools and colleges – that’s impossible to resolve at the moment.”

The SAGE member also said “we hope to be in a position to be more definitive about these answers in the next two to three weeks”.

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Currently, Covid vaccines are only available to those over 30 years old, which could explain the rise in cases in younger people.

Professor Ravi Gupta, microbiologist at Cambridge University, also told the press conference: “I do think we should take these reports [of it spreading more quickly in the young] seriously because that’s the first sign that you have a problem.

“Often if you wait too long for the right data it’s too late.

“Hopefully the countries where they’re seeing this will be studying it in a kind of rigorous way so that we can get that information.”

Public Health England (PHE) reported yesterday cases of the Indian variant have been found in 151 local authorities as of the week ending May 15.

Latest data from PHE also revealed that 3,424 cases in total had been confirmed in the UK until May 19, with a majority detected only in the week prior.

Chief medical officer Professor Chris Whitty said on May 14 the variant is expected to “overtake and come to dominate in the UK in the way that B.1.1.7 (Kent variant) took over and other variants have taken over prior to that”.

SAGE has estimated the variant is up to 50 percent more transmissible than the Kent variant.

Prime Minister Boris Johnson has said the UK still needed to be “cautious” in unlocking the UK from restrictions, but added he saw nothing in the data that would suggest “deviating” from the plan.

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Another 186,147 first doses and 387,987 second doses of Covid vaccine were administered yesterday.

The UK has administered 38,378,564 first doses and 23,616,498 second doses in total, equalling 72.9 percent and 44.8 percent of the population respectively.

Yesterday also saw another 3,180 cases and nine deaths within 28 days of a positive coronavirus test.

In total, the UK has seen 4,470,297 cases and 127,748 deaths.

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This post originally appeared on Daily Express :: UK Feed

Germany declares UK a 'virus variant region' amid growing fears over Indian strain

Germany’s public health institute issued new Covid rules requiring anyone travelling into the country from the UK to quarantine for two weeks on arrival. Cases of the Indian variant have been surging in localised hotspots including Bedford, Bolton and Blackburn, but the Prime Minister has pushed on, stating there is no reason to deviate from the current lockdown roadmap.
Speaking about the country’s latest quarantine rules, a German government source told Reuters news agency: “We want to play it safe.

“In this important phase of the vaccination campaign, the entry of problematic mutations must be avoided as far as possible.”

The new legislation takes effect from midnight on Sunday (11pm GMT Saturday) and even applies to those who have been fully vaccinated.

German officials are approaching lockdown easing with caution after breaking the back of a third wave earlier this month.

A spokesman for the Health Ministry said: “If we want to keep pushing down infection rates, we need to prevent contagious viral variants from jeopardising this positive trend.

“This step is hard for the UK, but it is necessary to prevent the rapid spread of the Indian variant in Germany.”

He added that Germany will be armed against such a danger only when more people have been vaccinated.

According to Johns Hopkins University, Germany has administered over 43 million jabs – with 10 million people being fully protected.

German Chancellor Angela Merkel previously warned that, although Covid cases were declining, “the virus has not disappeared.”

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The hospitality industry has recently reopened in Berlin, with beer gardens, cafes and restaurants returning to outdoor service for the first time in months.

Ms Merkel added: “I hope that, after the long time with closures and opportunities they didn’t have, that people will treat these opportunities very responsibly.”

In the UK, Boris Johnson’s roadmap out of lockdown is progressing without interruption despite the Indian variant concern.

International travel reopened last Monday, much to the delight of Brits looking to get away for the summer.

In a statement on May 20, Mr Johnson said: “We will be letting everybody know exactly what sort of arrangements to expect for June 21.

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“But what I can tell you, and just to stress that I am still seeing nothing in the data that leads me to think that we’re going to have to deviate from the roadmap – obviously we must remain cautious but I’m seeing nothing that makes me think we have to deviate.”

Germany’s decision comes shortly after a new variant of the virus with a “strange combination” of genes was discovered in Yorkshire and the Humber.

The newly discovered Yorkshire variant, also called the VUI-21MAY-01 or AV.1 variant, is not believed to be more transmissible than other strains from India and is currently “under investigation”.

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This post originally appeared on Daily Express :: World Feed

Indian variant symptoms: What are the signs of Covid new strain infection?

Does the vaccine work against the Indian variant?

As it stands, it’s still too early to tell what effect the vaccine will have on the new strain.

There is currently little evidence in people that the variant is stronger than the vaccine.

In the case of other strains, such as the one found in South Africa, the vaccine appears to have protected recipients against it better than initially expected.

The Scientific Pandemic Influenza Group on Modelling (SPI-M) said: “At this point in the vaccine rollout, there are still too few adults vaccinated to prevent a significant resurgence that ultimately could put unsustainable pressure on the NHS.”

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This post originally appeared on Daily Express :: Health Feed
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Indian variant set to become dominant UK strain within days, scientists warn

The number of cases of B.1.617.2 continue to surge across England, as the Government scrambles to contain the outbreak. Health secretary Matt Hancock told MPs on Monday that 86 out of 343 local authorities had now confirmed five or more incidents of the Indian variant. He added that a total of 2,323 people had been infected with the strain, which equates to a 77 percent increase in confirmed cases of B.1.617.2 over the last five days.
This significant increase has led some experts to predict that the Indian variant is about to become the dominant Covid strain within the UK.

Paul Hunter, a professor in medicine at the University of East Anglia, told The Guardian: “There is no evidence that the recent rapid rise in cases of the B.1.617.2 variant shows any signs in slowing.

“This variant will overtake [the Kent variant] and become the dominant variant in the UK in the next few days, if it hasn’t already done so.”

Mr Hancock confirmed that the Indian variant was already the dominant strain in Bolton, Blackburn and Darwen.

The Health Secretary said that Bedford was also fast becoming a new epicentre for the spread of the Indian variant.

Experts are still unsure the extent to which B.1.617.2 is more transmissible than previous strains of the Covid virus.

The UK’s Chief Medical Officer, Professor Chris Whitty, told reporters: “That’s a really critical question to which we do not yet have the answer.”

However, the Government’s Scientific Advisory Group for Emergencies (Sage) believes that it could spread 50 percent faster.

READ MORE: Which London boroughs have the Indian variant?

Step 4 envisages the easing of almost all social distancing rules, as well as the opening of nightclubs.

A Downing Street spokesman cautioned: “The variant first identified in India could pose serious disruption to this progress, and could make it more difficult to move to step 4.

“Our decision will be based on the very latest data, and we want to allow as much time as possible to assess this so we will set out plans as soon as the data allows.”

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This post originally appeared on Daily Express :: UK Feed

Boris Johnson warns lockdown lift could have ‘serious disruption’ amid Indian strain panic

During a briefing at Downing Street on Friday, the Prime Minister said if the new variant was found to be “significantly” more transmissible, there could be “some hard choices”. Over the past week, cases of the strain first detected in India nearly tripled, according to Public Health England.
Mr Johnson explained how there is “no evidence” that the variant can evade vaccines.

He also assured the nation that the next phase of easing lockdown on Monday will continue as planned.

However, the Prime Minister warned that his hopes of lifting lockdown on June 21 could be crushed by the Indian strain.

He said: “I do not believe that we need, on the present evidence, to delay our roadmap and we will proceed with our plan to move to step three in England from Monday.

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He said: “I would urge people just to think twice about that.

“We want people in those areas to recognise that there is extra risk, an extra threat of disruption to progress caused by this new variant and just to exercise their discretion and judgment in a way I’m sure that they have been throughout this pandemic.”

On Friday, official figures showed that the UK has recorded 2,193 COVID-19 cases and a further 17 deaths in the latest 24-hour period.

On Monday, as part of the next stage in the roadmap out of lockdown, people in England will be allowed to meet indoors in homes and hospitality venues.

Non-essential international travel will also be permitted following a traffic light system with ‘green, ‘amber’ and ‘red’ countries.

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This post originally appeared on Daily Express :: UK Feed